A People and a Nation A History of the United States Volume I To 1877, 9th Edition Test Bank
Chapter 2—Europeans Colonize North America, 1600-1650
|·||Identify each item. Give an explanation or description of the item. Answer the questions who, what, where, and when.|
|·||Explain the historical significance of each item. Establish the historical context in which the item exists. Establish the item as the result of or as the cause of other factors existing in the society under study. Answer this question: What were the political, social, economic, and/or cultural consequences of this item?|
- Captain William Rudyerd
- Providence Island
- Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
- Juan de Oñate
- Quebec and Montreal
- the Black Robes
- New Netherland
- Iroquois-Huron War
- the Greater Antilles
- the Lesser Antilles
- English population boom
- Henry VIII
- Martin Luther and John Calvin
- English Calvinists
- the doctrine of predestination
- the divine right of kings
- the Virginia Company
- joint-stock companies
- Chief Powhatan
- Captain John Smith
- the starving time
- tobacco cultivation
- the headright system
- the House of Burgesses
- Cecelius Calvert
- indentured servitude
- the “seasoning process”
- Chesapeake families
- the Mayflower Compact
- Massasoit and Squanto
- Puritan Congregationalists
- the Massachusetts Bay Company
- John Winthrop
- the doctrine of the covenant
- the communal land-grant system of Massachusetts
- Pequot War
- John Eliot
- Thomas Mayhew
- criminal codes of conduct in Puritan New England
- Roger Williams
- Anne Marbury Hutchinson
- French missionaries, unlike their Spanish counterparts, decided they could best convert Native Americans to Christianity by
|a.||moving them to European-style villages.|
|b.||using European medicines to cure Indians of smallpox.|
|c.||destroying all vestiges of traditional Indian religions.|
|d.||learning Indian languages and going among the natives.|
- Which of the following is considered the most important factor in making Native Americans receptive to the Christian message of the Black Robes?
|a.||The ability of the Black Robes to cure disease|
|b.||The scientific knowledge of the Black Robes|
|c.||The ability of the Black Robes to communicate with each other through written messages|
|d.||The debating skills of the Black Robes|
- Which of the following was a consequence of the war between the Iroquois and the Hurons?
|a.||The Hurons were victorious and became the major Indian power in the Northeast.|
|b.||The Iroquois were victorious and became the major Indian power in the Northeast.|
|c.||The two combatants fought to exhaustion, allowing the Dutch to dictate the terms of trade in the region.|
|d.||The two combatants fought to exhaustion, allowing the French to dictate the terms of trade in the region.|
- English colonization efforts in North America were eventually successful because
|a.||the English followed the Spanish model of colonization.|
|b.||the English sent large numbers of settlers to establish colonies based on agriculture.|
|c.||the English sent large numbers of soldiers to protect all of its settlements in North America.|
|d.||the English government began to finance its settlements rather than depending on corporations.|
- The economic and social problems in seventeenth-century England that caused many English citizens to migrate to the New World were the result of
|a.||the collapse of the woolens industry.|
|b.||warfare between England and France.|
|c.||the government’s decision to eliminate all tariffs on foreign goods.|
|d.||the doubling of the English population between 1530 and 1680.|
- English officials believed that the establishment of colonies in the New World would help maintain order in England by
|a.||providing new markets for English goods among Native Americans.|
|b.||providing an outlet for what the officials perceived to be England’s excess population.|
|c.||diverting the attention of the English people from domestic problems to the task of converting the Indians to Christianity.|
|d.||increasing England’s supply of gold and silver, thereby bringing inflation under control.|
- John Calvin differed from Martin Luther in that Calvin
|a.||emphasized the free will of human beings.|
|b.||stressed that people must totally submit to the will of an omnipotent God.|
|c.||advocated religious toleration.|
|d.||stressed the innate goodness of human beings.|
- The Puritans advocated which of the following changes in the Church of England?
|a.||They wanted all English citizens to be included in the membership of the church.|
|b.||They wanted bishops and archbishops to be elected rather than appointed.|
|c.||They wanted priests to be allowed to marry.|
|d.||They wanted the church to be free from political interference.|
- Which of the following is a Puritan belief?
|a.||God has already chosen those who are to be saved, and nothing one does will change one’s fate.|
|b.||One who attempts to learn about the will of God is more likely to be saved.|
|c.||Good works are necessary for one’s soul to go to heaven.|
|d.||God will extend salvation to all humans who repent of their sins.|
- Which of the following English citizens would be most likely to make the decision to migrate to the New World in the seventeenth century?
|a.||A member of the titled aristocracy who accepted the religious teachings of the Church of England|
|b.||A wealthy English merchant who accepted the religious teachings of the Church of England|
|c.||A former tenant farmer who had been forced off the land by the landowner, was looking for work in England’s cities, and accepted Calvinist theology|
|d.||A member of the landed gentry who accepted Calvinist theology and had recently combined a number of small land units into a large enclosed estate|
- A number of English Calvinists moved to America in the 1620s and 1630s because they
|a.||wanted to establish a society in which all religious beliefs were tolerated.|
|b.||wanted to be free to practice their religious beliefs without interference by the English monarch.|
|c.||were exiled to the New World after rebelling against the king.|
|d.||wanted to establish an independent nation for themselves.|
- Joint-stock companies turned out to be poor ways to finance colonies because
|a.||taxes on the profits of such companies were excessive.|
|b.||new colonies do not immediately return a profit to investors.|
|c.||the number of people who could invest in such companies was limited by English law.|
|d.||the English government insisted on controlling day-to-day operations of these companies.|
- One of the driving forces behind the founding of England’s first permanent colony was a desire
|b.||to establish a haven for English Catholics.|
|c.||to gain knowledge about the flora and fauna of the New World.|
|d.||to challenge France’s power in the New World.|
- Which of the following was a reason for the early problems that confronted the Jamestown colony?
|a.||The colony was kept in a constant state of chaos due to the tyrannical rule of John Smith.|
|b.||Nomadic tribes had virtually wiped out the supply of game in the area.|
|c.||A severe drought made it difficult for the settlers to cultivate crops.|
|d.||The early colonists had to contend with the hostility of nearby Indians.|
- The survival of the Jamestown settlement is largely due to
|a.||good planning on the part of the Virginia Company.|
|b.||aid received from the Powhatan Confederacy during the settlement’s first two years.|
|c.||the agricultural skills of the early settlers.|
|d.||the early development of village democracy.|
- Powhatan extended aid to the Jamestown settlers because
|a.||they achieved a quick and decisive victory over his warriors.|
|b.||he believed they were divine beings.|
|c.||their weapons could help him consolidate his power over other tribes in the region.|
|d.||the Algonquian religion taught the brotherhood of all people.|
- Which of the following was true of the Algonquians?
|a.||They had an egalitarian society.|
|b.||The power that Algonquian leaders had over their people was limited rather than autocratic.|
|c.||Social status always passed through the male line.|
|d.||There were no clearly defined sex roles in their culture.|
- Which of the following caused misunderstandings between the English and the Algonquians?
|a.||The English could not understand the Algonquian concept of hereditary right.|
|b.||The English believed Algonquian men were lazy because they cared for the tribe’s children.|
|c.||The English could not understand the Algonquian practice of working the fields communally.|
|d.||The English believed that Algonquian chiefs, like European kings, could make treaties in the name of their people.|
- Which of the following correctly describes the attitude of most English settlers toward the Native Americans and their way of life?
|a.||They assumed the Native Americans to be their inferiors and showed little respect for Indian society.|
|b.||They accepted and respected the differences between their own culture and Indian culture.|
|c.||They were very interested in understanding as many aspects of Indian culture as possible.|
|d.||They were openly hostile toward the Native Americans and had no thoughts of living in peace with them.|
- As a result of the cultivation of tobacco in Virginia,
|a.||the large estates were divided into smaller agricultural units.|
|b.||the Virginia Company began to send male laborers to the colony.|
|c.||settlers began to congregate in urban areas.|
|d.||a scattered pattern of settlement emerged in the colony.|
- Which of the following upset the balance between the English and the Native Americans in Virginia?
|a.||The arrival of British soldiers|
|b.||The spread of tobacco cultivation|
|c.||The kidnapping of Pocahontas|
|d.||The introduction of slavery|
- For which of the following reasons did the spread of tobacco cultivation in Virginia lead to conflict with the Indians?
|a.||The Indians were jealous of the prosperity that tobacco cultivation brought to the English settlers.|
|b.||Indian religion associated tobacco with evil spirits and with death.|
|c.||In an effort to get workers for their plantations, Virginia planters began to kidnap and enslave Indians.|
|d.||The abundant land required for tobacco cultivation caused the settlers increasingly to encroach on Indian lands.|
- Did the headright system benefit the wealthy gentry in Virginia? Why?
|a.||Yes, because it allowed them to sell all of their farm goods above market price.|
|b.||Yes, because it allowed them to amass more land and obtain laborers to work that land.|
|c.||No, because large farms were subdivided as the number of adult males increased.|
|d.||No, because it made them politically powerless.|
- James I abolished the House of Burgesses because he
|a.||thought it was the main reason for Virginia’s instability.|
|b.||blamed it for the financial failures of the Virginia Company.|
|c.||distrusted legislative assemblies.|
|d.||believed that it was dominated by Virginia’s wealthy landowners.|
- Why was the House of Burgesses reinstated in Virginia in 1629?
|a.||Protests from the Virginia settlers led to its reinstatement.|
|b.||The new king believed that governmental powers should be shared among different interest groups.|
|c.||Virginia’s governor threatened to resign if it were not reinstated.|
|d.||The landed gentry in Virginia threatened to boycott British goods until it was reinstated.|
- Why was the House of Burgesses important to the development of the British colonies in North America?
|a.||The political-rights legislation it passed led to the emergence of democracy in the colonies.|
|b.||The decisive military stand it took against the Native Americans effectively ended the Indian menace.|
|c.||Its presence established the precedent of self-government at the local level in England’s North American colonies.|
|d.||Its decision to give land to all Virginia settlers caused people to see the British colonies as a land of opportunity.|
- How did Maryland differ from Virginia?
|a.||Maryland’s settlers congregated in towns.|
|b.||Maryland’s economy was based on trade.|
|c.||Maryland offered freedom of religion to all Christian settlers.|
|d.||Maryland planters could amass large landed estates.|
- Indentured servants were important to the development of the seventeenth-century Chesapeake because they
|a.||were usually artisans who brought needed skills to the area.|
|b.||provided a relatively cheap and abundant source of labor for Chesapeake tobacco planters.|
|c.||brought new ideas concerning the cultivation and cure of tobacco.|
|d.||provided labor for important public projects undertaken by the colonial governments of Virginia and Maryland.|
- What is an indentured servant?
|a.||One who has been sentenced to work for another as punishment for a crime|
|b.||One who is allowed to live on and work someone else’s land and in return agrees to share the crops raised|
|c.||One who is obligated to work for the government but receives food and shelter in return|
|d.||One who contracts to work for a planter for up to seven years and in return receives passage to the New World|
- Most English migrants to the Chesapeake in the seventeenth century were
- Which of the following is true concerning indentured servants?
|a.||A significant percentage did not live through the period of their indenture.|
|b.||Most had to pay for their own food out of the meager wages they earned.|
|c.||They were legally defined as property and had no rights under the law.|
|d.||They were not generally overworked and found the Chesapeake climate conducive to their health.|
- Which of the following was true of most Chesapeake families in the seventeenth-century?
|a.||They made most of their own clothes and farm implements.|
|b.||They did not spend much money on material possessions beyond the necessities.|
|c.||They lived luxurious lives of leisure.|
|d.||They had to import most of their food from England because they concentrated on growing cash crops.|
- Why did women in the seventeenth-century Chesapeake bear fewer children on the average than their English counterparts?
|a.||Marriages in the Chesapeake were broken more often by death.|
|b.||Abortion was more readily available in the Chesapeake.|
|c.||Women in the Chesapeake were more conscious of family planning.|
|d.||A lower percentage of Chesapeake women married.|
- Why was the seventeenth-century Chesapeake politically unstable?
|a.||The governments of Virginia and Maryland were dominated by immigrants who had no strong ties to each other or to their respective colonies.|
|b.||Few settlers cared about becoming politically involved.|
|c.||Parliament continually interfered in the governing of the Chesapeake colonies.|
|d.||Most settlers questioned the legitimacy of the colonial governments of Virginia and Maryland.|
- Why did the New England colonies develop differently from the Chesapeake colonies?
|a.||The New England settlers rejected the institution of slavery.|
|b.||The New England colonies were royal colonies and were never run by corporations.|
|c.||Religion was a much more important force in shaping New England society than it was in shaping Chesapeake society.|
|d.||The migrants who chose to settle in New England were generally younger than those who settled in the Chesapeake.|
- Why were devout Puritans in a perpetual state of anxiety?
|a.||They never knew with absolute certainty whether they were of the saved or of the damned.|
|b.||They constantly worried about whether God wanted them to tithe.|
|c.||They could never know whether they had done enough good deeds for God to consider them candidates for heaven.|
|d.||They lived in constant fear that they had not shown enough tolerance toward others.|
- Separatists differed from Puritan Congregationalists in that Separatists believed
|a.||that one is saved solely by the grace of God.|
|b.||in complete equality between the sexes.|
|c.||that the Church of England was too corrupt to be saved.|
|d.||in allowing freedom of religion to all settlers at Plymouth.|
- Separatists left Holland and settled at Plymouth because they wanted to
|a.||isolate themselves and their children from the corrupting influences of the world.|
|b.||escape the dangers posed by the renewal of warfare between Holland and France.|
|c.||escape persecution at the hands of Dutch Calvinists.|
|d.||join their fellow Puritans in New England.|
- The Mayflower Compact was an agreement among the people on board the Mayflower that
|a.||the non-Separatists among them would return to England as soon as possible.|
|b.||they, the Plymouth settlers, constituted a politically organized body with the legal authority to make decisions for the colony.|
|c.||the Plymouth colony would be governed by a representative assembly.|
|d.||religious toleration would be extended to all who wished to settle in Plymouth.|
- Why did the Pakanoket Indians extend aid to the Pilgrims?
|a.||Their religion taught that all men were brothers.|
|b.||They wanted to lull the Pilgrims into a false sense of security before enslaving them.|
|c.||They wanted the Pilgrims as allies against the neighboring Narragansett Indians.|
|d.||The Pilgrims supplied them with liquor.|
- Which of the following was a goal of the Congregationalist Puritans who decided to establish a colony in North America?
|a.||They wanted to Christianize the Indians.|
|b.||They wanted to build a society based on freedom of religious expression.|
|c.||They wanted to establish a merchant-oriented society with trading ties to the major European nations.|
|d.||They wanted to complete their reform of the Church of England.|
- Puritans believed in the doctrine of the covenant. Which of the following best expresses that doctrine?
|a.||All the people of a community must participate in the process by which decisions are made.|
|b.||The people of a community must agree to be law-abiding citizens.|
|c.||Before the beginning of time God chose certain people to be of the elect and others to be of the damned.|
|d.||God makes a contract with a group of people giving them the chance to perform a mission, and they must then enter into an agreement with each other to carry out that mission.|
- Before the Massachusetts Bay colony became a royal colony, the right to vote was limited to
|a.||all adults who agreed to abide by the legal code of the colony.|
|b.||all property-owning adult male residents of the colony who owned stock in the Massachusetts Bay Company.|
|c.||all property-owning adult males who were members of the Puritan church.|
|d.||all residents of the colony who were members of the Puritan church.|
- Which of the following was a characteristic of the land distribution system of early Massachusetts Bay?
|a.||Distinguished individuals received the largest and best plots.|
|b.||Each individual settler received a fifteen-acre headright.|
|c.||Each family in a town received an equal amount of land, but the amount varied from town to town.|
|d.||Each family received land for a house, but farmland was worked communally.|
- Why did Puritan migrations into the Connecticut valley eventually lead to war with the Pequot Indians?
|a.||The migrations violated treaty agreements between the Puritans and the Pequots.|
|b.||The Puritans came into the region with the intent of enslaving the Pequots.|
|c.||The presence of English settlers in the area disrupted the trade patterns on which Pequot power was based.|
|d.||The migrations disrupted Pequot society, which was based on total isolation from the outside world.|
- Why was John Eliot unsuccessful in converting the New England Indians to Christianity?
|a.||He was never able to convince the Indians of the superiority of the Christian God over their pantheon of gods.|
|b.||He tried to employ elaborate rituals in the worship service.|
|c.||He preached a covenant of works, which was a concept totally alien to the Indians.|
|d.||He insisted that to be truly Christian the Indians had to reject their culture for English culture.|
- Why did some North American Indians find the religious ideas of Catholicism and Puritanism attractive?
|a.||They were intrigued by the concept of the Trinity.|
|b.||The religious ideas of the Jesuits and the Puritans closely resembled the ideas of traditional Indian religions.|
|c.||European religious services included the singing of hymns, which the Indians enjoyed.|
|d.||The Indians thought that the religious ideas of the Europeans could help them cope with the tremendous changes they had to face.|
- How did the lifestyles of white New England settlers differ from the lifestyles of their counterparts in the Chesapeake?
|a.||Because New Englanders moved a great deal, their homes were not as sturdy as those in the Chesapeake.|
|b.||Most New Englanders moved to America in family groups, while most Chesapeake migrants were single young men.|
|c.||The harshness of the New England environment meant a higher infant mortality rate and smaller families in New England than in the Chesapeake.|
|d.||Unlike New Englanders who cleared new fields every few years, residents of the Chesapeake used the same fields year after year.|
- One of the reasons for Roger Williams’s banishment from Massachusetts Bay was his belief that
|a.||the church and the state should be linked.|
|b.||the covenant of grace was a false doctrine.|
|c.||good works were essential to salvation.|
|d.||the king of England had no right to give away land belonging to the Indians.|
- Anne Hutchinson challenged Puritan orthodoxy by expressing which of the following beliefs?
|a.||She taught that the elect could communicate directly with God.|
|b.||She preached that divorce was an unforgivable sin.|
|c.||She called for the ordination of women as ministers.|
|d.||She taught that the covenant of grace was contrary to the teachings of Jesus.|
- Discuss the characteristics of French settlements in the New World in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
- Examine the role of sugar in the contest among France, the Netherlands, and England for control of the Lesser Antilles.
- Examine the relationship between the Powhatan Confederacy and the Jamestown colonists between 1607 and 1640.
- Examine the impact of each of the following on the social, political, and economic development of the Virginia colony from 1607 to 1640:
|a.||the headright system|
|b.||the House of Burgesses|
- Identify the characteristics of most of the indentured servants who immigrated to the Chesapeake in the early seventeenth century, and explain the type of life that awaited them.
- Discuss the religious beliefs of the Puritan Congregationalists, especially the idea of the covenanted community, and examine the impact of those beliefs on the social, political, and economic evolution of Massachusetts Bay colony between 1630 and 1640.
- Examine the relationship between the Massachusetts Bay colonists and the New England Indians between 1630 and 1640.
- Examine the similarities and differences between the lifestyle of the Chesapeake colonists and that of the New England colonists around 1640. What accounts for the differences that emerged?
- Discuss the cases of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson. Why were Williams and Hutchinson perceived as threats by the Puritan authorities? What do these cases tell us about the belief system of the Puritan authorities in Massachusetts Bay colony?
Map Exercise 2-1
Use the map that follows:
- Refer to Map Exercise 2-1. Label the following colonies:
Maryland (Use a highlight pen to color the territory that constituted the Maryland colony.)
- Refer to Map Exercise 2-1. Label the following rivers and bodies of water:
- Refer to Map Exercise 2-1. Mark the location of and label the following: