Abnormal or Exceptional Mental Health Literacy for Child and Youth Care Canadian 1st Edition Test Bank

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Abnormal or Exceptional Mental Health Literacy for Child and Youth Care Canadian 1st Edition Test Bank

 

Sample Chapter Below:

 

Chapter 1 Perspectives: Abnormal or Exceptional?

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

Learning Objective 1.1 – Identify, define, and provide examples for the four elements of abnormality. Explain how cultural and societal norms play a role in definitions of abnormality.

 

  1. All of the following are one of the major elements of abnormality EXCEPT:
    1. risk to self and others
    2. personal distress
    3. impairment or maladaptiveness
    4. altered consciousness

Answer: D

Page Reference: 3-7

Skill: factual; Difficulty: easy

 

  1. For someone to be described as exhibiting “abnormal behaviour” according to the psychological perspective and the DSM, behaviour must be
    1. genetically based
    2. maladaptive and harmful
    3. something everybody does
    4. not seen at all in “normal people”

Answer: B

Page Reference: 6

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: moderate

 

  1. Alice orders dinner in a Winnipeg restaurant. After receiving her spaghetti dinner, she starts to eat it with her fingers. Alice has violated a social
    1. norm
    2. tradition
    3. taboo
    4. sanction

Answer: A

Page Reference: 3

Skill: applied; Difficulty: easy

 

  1. What is considered “abnormal” in one culture may be considered quite “normal” in another culture. This illustrates that abnormality is a
    1. nonsocial concept
    2. dimensional concept
    3. useless concept
    4. relative concept

Answer: D

Page Reference: 4-5

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: challenging

  1. Although binge drinking is considered culturally unacceptable in Canada, it occurs frequently on college and university campuses. Considering the basic elements of abnormality, binge drinking in Canada is best viewed as being
    1. a social variant
    2. normal behaviour
    3. socially deviant
    4. statistically deviant

Answer: C

Page Reference: 4-5

Skill: applied; Difficulty: moderate

 

Learning Objective 1.2 – Describe the field of abnormal psychology. Distinguish between mental health, mental illness, and abnormality. Summarize the DSM approach to abnormality.

 

  1. The branch of psychology that focuses on the scientific study of disorders of behaviour, mood, and mental processes is referred to as
    1. abnormal psychology
    2. biopsychosocial psychology
    3. abnormal psychology
    4. developmental psychology

Answer: A

Page Reference: 8

Skill: factual; Difficulty: easy

 

  1. All of the following are among the primary goals of abnormal psychology EXCEPT
    1. describe
    2. explain
    3. decrease
    4. control

Answer: C

Page Reference: 8

Skill: factual; Difficulty: easy

 

  1. Mental health is associated with each of the following EXCEPT
    1. productive activities
    2. an ability to cope with the normal stresses of life
    3. making a contribution to one’s community
    4. an ability to avoid stressful and traumatic events

Answer: D

Page Reference: 9

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: moderate

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The term that is used to refer to a pattern of specific behavioural, cognitive, emotional, or physical symptoms shown by an individual that is marked by distress and decreased functioning is
    1. mental health
    2. mental disorder
    3. mental illness
    4. abnormal psychology

Answer: B

Page Reference: 8-9

Skill: factual; Difficulty: moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE?
    1. Abnormal behaviour and mental disorder are equivalent terms that mean the same thing
    2. Mental disorder refers to a pattern of behaviour, not just a single act
    3. Mental illness only refers to psychological problems that are related to biological factors
    4. Mental illness and mental disorder are equivalent terms that mean the same thing

Answer: B

Page Reference: 8-9

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: challenging

 

  1. How are disorders organized in the DSM-5?
    1. There are 5 major categories or groupings of disorders
    2. There are 5 major areas or axes of assessment (i.e., stress, physical health, etc.)
    3. There are 22 major categories or groupings of disorders
    4. Each disorder is considered along 2 dimensions: internal/external and controlled/overcontrolled

Answer: C

Page Reference: 9

Skill: factual; Difficulty: easy

 

  1. Abnormal behaviour is commonly described as “symptoms” of mental “illness” to be “diagnosed” and “cured.” This terminology illustrates the importance of ______________in how the DSM defines abnormality.
    1. research data
    2. alternative approaches
    3. the medical model
    4. legal considerations

Answer: C

Page Reference: 9-10

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: moderate

 

  1. The basic function of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) is to
    1. Determine the total number of individuals suffering from a disorder
    2. Compare and contrast the effectiveness of different therapies
    3. Summarize the primary causes of specific mental disorders
    4. Help practitioners correctly identify specific disorders by specifically describing each disorder

Answer: D

Page Reference: 9-12

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: moderate

 

  1. Philips conducted a series of tests and interviews with Vera and determined that she best fell into the category of “anxiety disorders.” The collection of information about Vera is referred to as______ while assigning her behavioural pattern to a category of the DSM is referred to as_________.
    1. assessment; diagnosis
    2. diagnosis; assessment
    3. etiology; comorbidity
    4. diagnosis; etiology

Answer: A

Page Reference: 9-12

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: moderate

 

Learning Objective 1.3 – Summarize key elements of a CYC conceptual model and highlight those elements that are particularly relevant in CYC work with young people experiencing mental health concerns. Define mental health literacy.

 

  1. As a Child and Youth Care practitioner, Emily has a basic knowledge of mental health issues even though she is not a psychologist or psychiatrist and believes that this will help her to better recognize important behaviours in the youth she works with. This best illustrates the concept of ___________.
    1. mental health literacy
    2. ‘the other 23 hours’
    3. CYC domains of practice
    4. evidence-based practice

Answer: A

Page Reference: 13

Skill: applied; Difficulty: easy

 

  1. All of the following are one of Carol Stuart’s seven domains of CYC practice EXCEPT
    1. communication
    2. cultural competence
    3. professionalism
    4. self

Answer: B

Page Reference: 14-15

Skill: factual; Difficulty: easy

 

  1. Although widely used, Life Space Crisis Intervention has little scientific evidence to support its effectiveness with youth. This best illustrates which key element of a CYC conceptual model?
    1. mental health literacy
    2. person-first language
    3. evidence-based practice
    4. cultural respect

Answer: C

Page Reference: 19

Skill: applied; Difficulty: moderate

 

 

 

Learning Objective 1.4 – Summarize the CYC perspective on diagnostic labelling. Identify the strengths and limitations of using the DSM-5 in CYC practice.

 

  1. One strength of using the DSM system of classification is that it
    1. reduces the number of people diagnosed with disorders
    2. can help a child and family access help or services
    3. emphasizes resilience rather than pathology
    4. reinforces the notion that mental illness is very different from physical illness

Answer: B

Page Reference: 16-17

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: moderate

 

  1. Each of the following is a limitation of diagnostic labelling EXCEPT
    1. it draws attention to the negative behaviours of the child
    2. it can result in a loss of uniqueness and individuality
    3. it overemphasizes the emotional turmoil the precedes exceptional behaviour
    4. it overlooks the context or background issues associated with behaviour

Answer: C

Page Reference: 16-17

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: challenging

 

  1. 13-year-old Carl was recently diagnosed with ADHD. He is now afraid of hanging out with his friends for fear he will be recognized as mentally ill and treated differently. This example best illustrates
    1. a lack of cultural safety
    2. comorbidity
    3. inaccurate diagnosis
    4. his fear of stigma

Answer: D

Page Reference: 16-17

Skill: applied; Difficulty: easy

 

  1. Kelly was diagnosed with both ADHD and Major Depressive Disorder. This is an example of
    1. a flaw in the DSM-5 which does not describe symptoms in enough detail
    2. a psychologist’s error, since two disorders cannot be diagnosed in the same person
    3. comorbidity, a common occurrence in psychiatric diagnosis
    4. a diagnosis that could have been made based on earlier versions of the DSM but not today

Answer: C

Page Reference: 21

Skill: applied; Difficulty: moderate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Learning Objective 1.5 – Compare and contrast the psychological paradigms (both historical and modern) of abnormal behaviour.

 

  1. Based on the holes found in skulls from ancient times, it has been concluded that symptoms of mental illness were believed to be caused by
    1. improper diet
    2. brain tumours
    3. poverty
    4. evil spirits

Answer: D

Page Reference: 23-24

Skill: factual; Difficulty: easy

 

  1. From a supernatural perspective, the best way to treat an individual with a mental illness would be to
    1. provide medication
    2. ignore them to shock them into reality
    3. cut a hole in their head to allow the release of evil spirits
    4. talk to them to show them they are cared for

Answer: C

Page Reference: 23-24

Skill: applied; Difficulty: moderate

 

  1. According to the _______________perspective, attempts to understand exceptional behavior should consider the role of the body, mind, and social context.
    1. psychiatric
    2. biopsychosocial
    3. psychodynamic
    4. behavioural

Answer: B

Page Reference: 25

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: moderate

 

  1. According to the biological paradigm, explanations for mental illness would likely include all of the following EXCEPT
    1. genetic defects
    2. physical injury to the brain
    3. faulty learning experiences
    4. a virus

Answer: C

Page Reference: 26-27

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: moderate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which paradigm of abnormality assumes that abnormal behavior is caused by unconscious conflicts?
    1. biological
    2. behavioural
    3. psychodynamic
    4. cognitive

Answer: C

Page Reference: 28-31

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: easy

 

  1. From a behavioural paradigm, abnormal behaviour is caused by
    1. repression of childhood conflicts
    2. faulty learning experiences
    3. physiological malfunction
    4. cognitive distortions

Answer: B

Page Reference: 31-33

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: challenging

 

  1. What does the cognitive paradigm emphasize as the cause of abnormal behaviour?
    1. dysfunctional schemas and beliefs
    2. unconscious conflict
    3. chemical imbalance
    4. negative family systems

Answer: A

Page Reference: 33-34

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: easy

 

Learning Objective 1.6 – Summarize ways in which CYC professionals may use the major psychological paradigms in their CYC practice.

 

  1. The ______________ paradigm can be relevant to CYC practitioners in its emphasis on early traumatic experiences and defence mechanisms.
    1. biological
    2. psychodynamic
    3. behavioural
    4. cognitive

Answer: B

Page Reference: 36

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: moderate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The ______________ paradigm fits very well with a CYC perspective because of its emphasis on contextual and societal variables (e.g., poverty, race, ethnicity) in determining behaviour.
    1. sociocultural
    2. psychodynamic
    3. behavioural
    4. cognitive

Answer: A

Page Reference: 39

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: moderate

 

  1. Today, many CYC practitioners acknowledge that all theoretical paradigms have something to offer when it comes to trying to understand exceptional behaviours. This best illustrates
    1. re-enactment processes
    2. singular causality
    3. the dynamic-maturational model
    4. a holistic model

Answer: D

Page Reference: 40

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: moderate

 

  1. The ecological model is____________in that it examines the overall pattern of interactions between a young person and all variables in his or her environment: teachers, parents, caregivers, peers, etc.
    1. self-limiting
    2. exclusionary
    3. relational
    4. applied

Answer: C

Page Reference: 40

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: challenging

 

 

Learning Objective 1.7 – Identify and describe the major psychological approaches to treatment for mental disorders.

 

  1. A psychologist that believes the best treatment for abnormality is to use drugs/medications, is working within the ____________ paradigm.
    1. biological
    2. psychodynamic
    3. behavioural
    4. cognitive

Answer: A

Page Reference: 42

Skill: applied; Difficulty: moderate

 

 

 

 

  1. Amber’s therapist is trying to help her decrease her symptoms of depression by thinking positive thoughts and helping her see that failing grades do not mean she is a failure overall. Her therapist is using the________________paradigm in her approach to treating Amber.
    1. sociocultural
    2. psychodynamic
    3. behavioural
    4. cognitive

Answer: D

Page Reference: 44

Skill: applied; Difficulty: moderate

 

  1. Therapists adopting an integrative or eclectic approach provide therapy that is based on
    1. a psychodynamic paradigm
    2. behavioural strategies
    3. family engagement
    4. a combination of paradigms

Answer: D

Page Reference: 41

Skill: applied; Difficulty: challenging

 

Learning Objective 1.8 – Describe strength-based assessment processes and the general types of intervention approaches for child and youth mental health concerns.

 

  1. Variables that increase one’s ability to avoid negative outcomes, despite being exposed to chronic stress and adversity are referred to as
    1. risk factors
    2. resilience factors
    3. comorbid factors
    4. equifinal factors

Answer: B

Page Reference: 46-47

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: moderate

 

  1. Forces that threaten one’s normal development are referred to as
    1. risk factors
    2. resilience factors
    3. comorbid factors
    4. equifinal factors

Answer: A

Page Reference: 46-47

Skill: factual; Difficulty: easy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. When it comes to assessment in CYC practice, all of the following are true EXCEPT
    1. assessments need to be strength-based
    2. assessments need to be trauma-informed
    3. assessments usually require paper-and-pencil tests
    4. assessments are complex

Answer: C

Page Reference: 46-48

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: challenging

 

  1. Research demonstrates that regardless of the conceptual paradigm adopted by practitioners, the most important factor that determines the effectiveness of psychotherapy or counselling is
    1. the genetic make-up of the client
    2. the open-mindedness of the therapist
    3. the verbal skills of the client
    4. the quality of the relationship between client and therapist

Answer: D

Page Reference: 50

Skill: factual; Difficulty: moderate

 

  1. Psychoeducation and individual counselling in CYC practice were significantly influenced by the________________paradigm.
    1. sociocultural
    2. psychodynamic
    3. behavioural
    4. cognitive

Answer: B

Page Reference: 55

Skill: factual; Difficulty: easy

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE regarding family support interventions in CYC practice?
    1. Being family focused and family driven is a core principle of CYC practice.
    2. Most families want CYC practitioners to be involved in their lives.
    3. Family group conferencing (FGC) has little relevance for Canadian groups.
    4. Family support interventions fail to incorporate a strength-based approach.

Answer: A

Page Reference: 55-56

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: moderate

 

  1. Ten-year-old Tommy has been diagnosed with ADHD and his grandmother takes him to an elder who recommends exercise and traditional ceremonies to help Tommy. This best illustrates
    1. psychoeducation
    2. family group conferencing (FGC)
    3. alternative healing
    4. relational CYC practice

Answer: C

Page Reference: 58

Skill: applied; Difficulty: moderate

 

Learning Objective 1.9 – Summarize the pros and cons of using psychotropic medications with children and youth.

 

  1. One benefit associated with using psychotropic medications to treat youth exceptionalities is that it
    1. can reduce symptoms for some
    2. poses fewer risks than other treatment approaches
    3. is more evidence-based than any other approach to treatment
    4. helps to decrease stigma associated with diagnosis

Answer: A

Page Reference: 52-54

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: moderate

 

  1. Each of the following is TRUE regarding the use of psychotropic medications with youth EXCEPT
    1. Long-term implications of psychotropic medications on youth development is unknown
    2. Many youth do not have a say about whether they want to take a medication or not
    3. Psychotropic medications are being increasingly prescribed to children and youth
    4. Psychotropic medications are most effective when they are used as the sole treatment approach

Answer: D

Page Reference: 52-53

Skill: conceptual; Difficulty: challenging

Short-Answer Questions

 

  1. Identify each of the four elements of abnormality and provide a specific example for each.

Answer: The four elements of abnormality are: (1) deviance, (2) personal distress or suffering, (3) impairment or maladaptiveness; and (4) risk to self and others. Examples of each element will vary. Students may also distinguish between statistical deviance associated with infrequent or rare behaviour (e.g., few adolescents share a bed with their parents) and social deviance associated with behaviours that are considered socially unacceptable (e.g. eating spaghetti with your fingers instead of a fork in a Canadian restaurant is frowned upon).

Page Reference: 3-7; Objective 1.1

 

  1. Explain why person-first language is important in CYC practice and provide a specific example of such language.

Answer: In keeping with a CYC perspective, person-first language puts the person before the diagnosis. For example, rather than referring to the FASD child or the ADHD youth, we refer to a young person affected by FASD or the adolescent diagnosed with ADHD. Person-first language maintains the respect for the individual and ensures we focus on the youth not the disorder.

Page Reference: 17; Objective 1.3

 

  1. Identify one advantage and one disadvantage of using the DSM-5 in diagnosing mental disorders in children and youth.
    1. Answer: Various responses are acceptable. Advantages include: helping youth and their family access help or services and providing a common language for practitioners working with youth with exceptionalities. Disadvantages include: overlooking individual uniqueness, stigma and differential treatment, focus on problems and deficits, and permanence of the label. A complete list of pros and cons can be found in Table 1.2.

Page Reference: 16-17; Objective 1.4

  1. Compare and contrast the behavioural and cognitive paradigms of mental disorder.

Answer: The behavioural paradigm emphasizes immediate environment, observable behaviour, and learning experiences in determining behaviour. The same behavioural principles that shape normal behaviour (classical, operant, and observational learning processes) also shape exceptionalities. By comparison, the cognitive paradigm argues that it isn’t our actual experiences that determine behaviour, but rather, how we think about events and the meaning we assign to them. Distressing and disruptive emotions are associated with dysfunctional beliefs and schemas (general cognitive frameworks that help us organize and interpret information); once formed, dysfunctional schemas are maintained through the use of cognitive distortions which alter our perceptions of events so they are consistent with the schemas (whether they are reality-based or not).

Page Reference: 31-33; Objective 1.5

 

  1. Summarize the holistic or ecological model and describe how it differs from the other major paradigms in its approach to understanding exceptional behaviour.

Answer: Rather than focusing on one causal element, the holistic or ecological model acknowledges that the cause of exceptional behaviour is likely related to a variety of factors including biological factors, attachment issues, faulty learning experiences, etc. In addition to including elements from all of the major paradigms, the ecological model also examines the overall pattern of relationships between a young person and multiple factors in their environment including parents, teachers, and peers. Accordingly, it is a relational model.

Page Reference: 40; Objective 1.6

 

  1. Describe cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and its role in CYC practice.

Answer: Cognitive behavioural therapy refers to therapeutic strategies that focus on altering thoughts as well as including behavioural exercises in their approach to changing emotion and behaviour. CBT fits well with a CYC perspective and is likely to be used by CYC practitioners in their practice which includes assertiveness training, enhancing problem solving, and family communication skills training. A significant amount of research supports the efficacy of the CBT model and in the area of children and youth, it is considered the gold-standard of evidence-based interventions.

Page Reference: 44 and 51-52; Objectives 1.7 and 1.8

 

  1. Summarize the risk-resiliency model. Identify two resiliency protective factors discussed in your text.

Answer: The risk-resiliency model considers not only risk factors (forces that threaten normal development) but also those factors that serve to protect an at-risk youth resulting in good outcomes despite experiencing chronic stress and adversity. Resiliency protective factors include: an easy temperament, presence of an adult mentor, informal sources of support, activities and creativity.

Page Reference: 46-47; Objective 1.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Identify one advantage and one disadvantage of using psychotropic medications in the treatment of exceptionalities in children and youth.

Answer: Various responses are acceptable. One advantage includes reducing symptoms for some youth; this is particularly relevant when symptoms are severe and impairing to the point where other strategies are no longer effective or helpful. Disadvantages include: inadequate confirmation of their effectiveness and safety, being driven by a profit motive, failure to obtain informed consent from the youth, used as a means to enforce compliance rather than treatment, and over reliance on medications to the exclusion of other interventions.

Page Reference: 52-55; Objective 1.9

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Case: 10-year-old Nadia has been throwing tantrums for quite some time now—violent, screaming tantrums that cause her to throw objects, hyperventilate, perspire, and just be completely out of control. Her parents first thought it was a passing phase but now they feel it is concerning given her age; none of her friends throw tantrums anymore. It is interfering with her performance in school and very few children if any want to play with her. Even her grandparents are losing sleep over Nadia’s distressing behaviour.

Question: Using each of the 4 major indicators of abnormality, discuss whether Nadia’s behaviour would be considered “abnormal.” In your answer, identify and briefly describe each of the 4 indicators and describe how each is illustrated in the example using specific content from the case. Can it be concluded that Nadia’s behaviour is abnormal? Explain your answer.

Suggested answer: Nadia’s behaviour illustrates (1) deviance, both statistical deviance (few children her age have tantrums anymore) and social deviance (her parents and peers find her behaviour unacceptable); (2) personal distress or suffering (she hyperventilates, perspires, is completely out of control, and has few friends, (3) impairment or maladaptiveness (it is interfering with her performance in school and few people want to spend time with her; and (4) risk to self and others (her tantrums are violent and she throws things).

 

Students conclusions as to whether her behaviour is abnormal will vary from yes it is abnormal (considering her behaviour in relation to the four indicators), to maybe (despite her behaviour we cannot draw a clear distinction between normal and abnormal) to no (it is inappropriate to use the label abnormal from a CYC approach).

Page Reference: 3-7; Objective 1.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case: 15-year-old Stan lives in a First Nations community in Saskatchewan and was recently taken to a local nursing station after experiencing a panic attack in school. He has been unable to sleep lately and when he does, he often wakes in the middle of the night frightened and alarmed. Stan lives with his grandmother following the death of his parents in a tragic car accident when he was 11-years-old but spends a significant amount of time alone or with his older cousin who is physically abusive. Lately, he has been thinking that there is something wrong with him because he worries about everything so much.

Question: Summarize how a CYC practitioner might use each of the following major psychological paradigms in her work with Stan: biological, psychodynamic, behavioural, cognitive, sociocultural. Specifically, identify major issues that might be explored from each perspective given the details provided in the case.

Suggested answer: Multiple responses are possible and might include the following points: (1) biological paradigm, benefits of positive human connection and how lasting change in the brain requires new programming with new connecting experiences, corrective interpersonal attachments, establishment of trusting relationships, healthy communication and opportunity to learn new strategies of emotional control and coping skills; (2) psychodynamic paradigm, emphasis on early traumatic experiences and attachment difficulties; (3) behavioural paradigm, understanding the role of learning experiences (classical, operant, and observational) in the development of dysfunctional behavior as well as their application to decreasing negative behaviours (using reinforcement, exposure); (4) cognitive paradigm, exploration of thoughts and beliefs in emotions; (5) sociocultural paradigm, would emphasize relevant contextual variables essential to understanding behaviour including  cultural norms, societal standards, cultural variations, poverty, racism, discrimination.

Page Reference: 35-45; Objective 1.6

 

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