Advanced Accounting 9th edition Solution by Hoyle

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Advanced Accounting 9th edition Solution by Hoyle

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 1

 

THE EQUITY METHOD OF ACCOUNTING FOR INVESTMENTS

 

 

Chapter Outline

 

  1. Three methods are principally used to account for an investment in equity securities.

 

  1. Fair-value method: applied by an investor when only a small percentage of a company’s voting stock is held.

 

  1. Income is recognized when dividends are declared.

 

  1. Portfolios are reported at market value. If market values are unavailable, investment is reported at cost.

 

  1. Consolidation: when one firm controls another (e.g., when a parent has a majority interest in the voting stock of a subsidiary or control through variable interests (FIN 46R), their financial statements are consolidated and reported for the combined entity.

 

  1. Equity method: applied when the investor has the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies of the investee.

 

  1. Ability to significantly influence investee is indicated by several factors including representation on the board of directors, participation in policy-making, etc.

 

  1. According to a guideline established by the Accounting Principles Board, the equity method is presumed to be applicable if 20 to 50 percent of the outstanding voting stock of the investee is held by the investor. SFAS 159, The Fair Value Option for Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities (effective 2008) allows firms to elect to use fair value

 

  1. Accounting for an investment: the equity method

 

  1. The investment account is adjusted by the investor to reflect all changes in the equity of the investee company.

 

  1. Income is accrued by the investor as soon as it is earned by the investee.

 

  1. Dividends declared by the investee create a reduction in the carrying amount of the Investment account.

 

  • Special accounting procedures used in the application of the equity method

 

  1. Reporting a change to the equity method when the ability to significantly influence an investee is achieved through a series of acquisitions.

 

  1. Initial purchase(s) will be accounted for by means of the fair-value method (or at cost) until the ability to significantly influence is attained.

 

  1. At the point in time that the equity method becomes applicable, a retroactive adjustment is made by the investor to convert all previously reported figures to the equity method based on percentage of shares owned in those periods.

 

  1. This restatement establishes comparability between the financial statements of all years.

 

 

 

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  1. Investee income from other than continuing operations

 

  1. Income items such as extraordinary gains and losses and prior period adjustments that are reported separately by the investee should be shown in the same manner by the investor.

 

  1. The materiality of this income element (as it affects the investor) continues to be a criterion for this separate disclosure.

 

  1. Investee losses

 

  1. Losses reported by the investee create corresponding losses for the investor.

 

  1. A permanent decline in the market value of an investee’s stock should also be recognized immediately by the investor.

 

  1. Investee losses can possibly reduce the carrying value of the investment account to a zero balance. At that point, the equity method ceases to be applicable and the fair-value method is subsequently used.

 

  1. Reporting the sale of an equity investment

 

  1. The equity method is consistently applied until the date of disposal to establish the proper book value.

 

  1. Following the sale, the equity method continues to be appropriate if enough shares are still held to maintain the investor’s ability to significantly influence the investee.

 

If that ability has been lost, the fair-value method is subsequently used.

 

  1. Excess cost of investment over book value acquired

 

  1. The price paid by an investor for equity securities can vary significantly from the underlying book value of the investee company primarily because the historical cost based accounting model does not keep track of changes in a firm’s market value.

 

  1. Payments made in excess of underlying book value can sometimes be identified with specific investee accounts such as inventory or equipment.

 

  1. An extra acquisition price can also be assigned to anticipated benefits that are expected to be derived from the investment. For accounting purposes, these amounts are presumed to reflect an intangible asset referred to as goodwill. Goodwill is calculated as any excess payment that is not attributable to specific accounts. For the year 2002 and beyond, goodwill is no longer amortized.

 

V.Deferral of unrealized gains in inventory

 

  1. Gains derived from intercompany transactions are not considered completely earned until the transferred goods are either consumed or resold to unrelated parties.

 

  1. Downstream sales of inventory

 

  1. “Downstream” refers to transfers made by the investor to the investee.

 

  1. Intercompany gains from sales are initially deferred under the equity method and then recognized as income at the time of the inventory’s eventual disposal.

 

  1. The amount of gain to be deferred is the investor’s ownership percentage multiplied by the markup on the merchandise remaining at the end of the year.

 

  1. Upstream sales of inventory

 

  1. “Upstream” refers to transfers made by the investee to the investor.

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Under the equity method, the deferral process for unrealized gains is identical for upstream and downstream transfers. The procedures are separately identified in Chapter One because the handling does vary within the consolidation process.

 

Learning Objectives

 

Having completed Chapter One, “The Equity Method of Accounting for Investments,” students should be able to fulfill each of the following learning objectives:

 

  1. Identify the sole criterion for applying the equity method of accounting.

 

  1. Understand the purpose of the 20 to 50 percent guideline as it is to be used by an investor.

 

  1. Prepare the basic equity method journal entries for an investor.

 

  1. Discuss the theoretical problems associated with an investor’s accrual of equity income where no asset has yet been received from the investment and may not be received in the foreseeable future.

 

  1. Understand the appropriate means of recording a change from the market-value method to the equity method and the rationale for this handling.

 

  1. Identify the proper reporting to be used in applying the equity method when an investee is disclosing items such as extraordinary gains and losses or prior period adjustments.

 

  1. Know that any permanent decline in the fair market value of an investee’s stock must be immediately reflected in the financial records of the investor.

 

  1. Record the sale of an equity investment and identify the accounting method to be applied to any remaining shares that are subsequently held.

 

  1. Allocate the price paid to purchase an investment so that a determination can be made of amounts attributed to specific investee accounts and/or goodwill.

 

  1. Compute the annual amortization to be recognized on any excess payments made by the investor and prepare the journal entry to record this expense.

 

  1. Understand the rationale for deferring unrealized gains on intercompany transfers until the time period in which the goods are either consumed or sold to outside parties.

 

  1. Compute the amount of an intercompany gain that is considered to be unrealized and make the journal entries to first defer the gain and then recognize it in the appropriate time period.

 

  1. Identify the difference between upstream and downstream transfers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Answers to Discussion Questions

 

Discussion questions are included within this textbook to stimulate student thought and discussion. These questions are also designed to force the students to consider relevant issues that might otherwise be overlooked. Some of these questions may be addressed by the instructor in class to provide an outlet for student discussion. Students should be encouraged to begin by defining the actual problem or problems in each case. Next, official accounting pronouncements or other relevant literature can be consulted as a preliminary step in arriving at logical actions. Many times, a careful reading of the statements created by the FASB, GASB, APB, etc., will provide authoritative answers.

 

Unfortunately, in accounting, definitive resolutions to financial reporting questions are not always available. Students often seem to believe that all accounting issues have been resolved in the past so that accounting education is only a matter of learning to apply historically prescribed procedures. However, in actual practice, the only real answer is often the one that provides the fairest representation of the transactions being recorded. If an authoritative solution is not available, students should be directed to list all of the issues involved and the consequences of possible alternative actions. The various factors being presented should then be weighed as a means of producing a viable solution.

 

These discussion questions have been produced so that students must use research skills as well as their own reasoning to derive resolutions for a variety of issues that go beyond the purely mechanical elements of accounting.

 

Does the Equity Method Really Apply Here?

 

The discussion presented in the case between the two accountants is limited to the reason for the investment acquisition and the current percentage of ownership. Instead, they should be examining the actual interaction that currently exists between the two companies. Although the ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies appears to be a rather vague criterion, APB Opinion 18, “The Equity Method of Accounting for Investments in Common Stock,” clearly specifies actual events that indicate this level of authority (paragraph

 

17):

 

Ability to exercise that influence may be indicated in several ways, such as representation on the board of directors, participation in policy-making processes, material intercompany transactions, interchange of managerial personnel, or technological dependency. Another important consideration is the extent of ownership by an investor in relation to the concentration of other shareholdings, but substantial or majority ownership of the voting stock of an investee company by another investor does not necessarily preclude the ability to exercise significant influence by the investor.

 

In this case, the accountants would be wise to determine whether Dennis Bostitch or any other member of the Highland Laboratories administration is participating in the management of Abraham, Inc. If any individual from Highland’s organization is on the board of directors of Abraham or is participating in management decisions, the equity method would seem to be appropriate. Likewise, if significant transactions have occurred between the companies (such as loans by Highland to Abraham), the ability to apply significant influence becomes much more evident.

 

 

 

 

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However, if James Abraham continues to operate Abraham, Inc., with little or no regard for Highland, the equity method should not be applied. This possibility seems especially likely in this case since James Abraham continues to hold a majority (2/3) of the voting stock. Thus, evidence of the ability to apply significant influence must be present before the equity method is viewed as applicable. The mere holding of 1/3 of the stock is not conclusive.

 

Is this Really only Significant Influence?

 

This case introduces students to an area of controversy at the present time: the distinction between the ability to exercise significant influence and actual control over a subsidiary. Accounting Research Bulletin No. 51, “Consolidated Financial Statements,” states in paragraph 2, “The usual condition for a controlling financial interest is ownership of a majority voting interest, and, therefore, as a general rule ownership by one company, directly or indirectly, of over 50 percent of the outstanding voting shares of another company is a condition pointing toward consolidation.” Companies have come to use this rule as a method for omitting some subsidiaries from consolidation. For example, joint ventures are created with two companies each owning exactly 50 percent of a third. Or, as in the case of the Coca-Cola Company and Coca-Cola Enterprises, the number of owned shares is below 50 percent. Thus, the equity method is used by the investor to account for the investment rather than consolidation.

 

The equity method and consolidation do not create different reported incomes for the parent company. However, under the equity method, instead of adding the revenues and expenses of the subsidiary to the parent company, a single equity income figure is included. In addition, the individual assets and liabilities of the subsidiary are also ignored in reporting the parent company’s financial position. According to the equity method, only an “Investment in Subsidiary” asset account is shown. Quite frequently, the opportunity to omit the subsidiary’s liabilities from the parent’s balance sheet is a strong incentive for this approach, a tactic often referred to as ”off-balance sheet financing.”

 

In the past, discussions concerning the wisdom of consolidation have tended to center on the exclusion of subsidiaries where over 50 percent of voting shares were held. Now, the reverse situation is being investigated: Is 50 percent ownership absolutely necessary for control (and, thus, consolidation)? Because of the dependency of Coca-Cola Enterprises on the Coca-Cola Company (as demonstrated by the amount of intercompany revenue), is control not present here despite the ownership of only 36 percent of the stock? If control has actually been established, does a single equity income figure recognized by the Coca-Cola Company as well as one “Investment in Subsidiary” account adequately reflect the relationship between these two companies? Chances seem likely that the FASB will eventually require the consolidation of less-than-majority-owned subsidiaries if the parent has rights, risks, and benefits equivalent to those of a majority ownership (see Chapter Two).

 

The instructor may want to take a class vote as to the best method for reporting Coca-Cola Enterprises within the Coca-Cola Company. If students opt to leave the rule at 50 percent, they should be asked to develop footnote disclosure information that will adequately reflect the relationship. They should also be asked if they truly believe the resulting financial statements are a fair representation of the financial reality. Conversely, if they decide to change the rule, they should be required to produce new guidelines. The problem then for the students is to develop workable rules to indicate the presence of control that might be used instead of pure ownership interest. For example, how should intercompany revenues and loans be factored

 

 

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into this decision? Or, how does marketing dependency influence the decision as to control (advertisements for the Coca-Cola Company clearly benefit Coca-Cola Enterprises)? Students will probably come to the conclusion that definitive guidelines are not always easily derived in the complex world of financial reporting. This lesson indicates the difficulty that groups such as the FASB and the GASB encounter and the reason why many official pronouncements are so lengthy and complicated.

 

Answers to Questions

 

  1. The equity method should be applied if the ability to exercise significant influence over the operating and financial policies of the investee has been achieved by the investor. However, if actual control has been established, consolidating the financial information of the two companies will normally be the appropriate method for reporting the investment.

 

  1. According to Paragraph 17 of APB Opinion 18, “Ability to exercise that influence may be indicated in several ways, such as representation on the board of directors, participation in policy-making processes, material intercompany transactions, interchange of managerial personnel, or technological dependency. Another important consideration is the extent of ownership by an investor in relation to the extent of ownership of other shareholdings.” The most objective of the criteria established by the Board is that holding (either directly or indirectly) 20 percent or more of the outstanding voting stock is presumed to constitute the ability to hold significant influence over the decision-making process of the investee.

 

  1. The equity method is appropriate when an investor has the ability to exercise significant influence over the operating and financing decisions of an investee. Because dividends represent financing decisions, the investor may have the ability to influence the timing of the dividend. If dividends were recorded as income (cash basis of income recognition), managers could affect reported income in a way that does not reflect actual performance. Therefore, in reflecting the close relationship between the investor and investee, the equity method employs accrual accounting to record income as it is earned by the investee. The investment account is increased for the investee earned income and then appropriately decreased as the income is distributed. From the investor’s view, the decrease in the investment asset is offset by an increase in the asset cash.

 

  1. If Jones does not have the ability to significantly influence the operating and financial policies of Sandridge, the equity method should not be applied regardless of the level of ownership. However, an owner of 25 percent of a company’s outstanding voting stock is assumed to possess this ability. FASB Interpretation 35 states that this presumption “. . . stands until overcome by predominant evidence to the contrary.”

 

“Examples of indications that an investor may be unable to exercise significant influence over the operating and financial policies of an investee include:

 

  1. Opposition by the investee, such as litigation or complaints to governmental regulatory authorities, challenges the investor’s ability to exercise significant influence.

 

  1. The investor and investee sign an agreement under which the investor surrenders significant rights as a shareholder.

 

  1. Majority ownership of the investee is concentrated among a small group of shareholders who operate the investee without regard to the views of the investor.

 

 

 

 

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  1. The investor needs or wants more financial information to apply the equity method than is available to the investee’s other shareholders (for example, the investor wants quarterly financial information from an investee that publicly reports only annually), tries to obtain that information, and fails.

 

  1. The investor tries and fails to obtain representation on the investee’s board of directors.”

 

  1. The following events necessitate changes in this investment account.

 

  1. Net income earned by Watts would be reflected by an increase in the investment balance whereas a reported loss is shown as a reduction to that same account.

 

  1. Dividends paid by the investee decrease its book value, thus requiring a corresponding reduction to be recorded in the investment balance.

 

  1. If, in the initial acquisition price, Smith paid extra amounts because specific investee assets and liabilities had values differing from their book values, amortization of this portion of the investment account is subsequently required. As an exception, if the specific asset is land or goodwill, amortization is not appropriate.

 

  1. Intercompany gains created by sales between the investor and the investee must be deferred until earned through usage or resale to outside parties. The initial deferral entry made by the investor reduces the investment balance while the eventual recognition of the gain increases this account.

 

  1. The equity method has been criticized because it allows the investor to recognize income that may not be received in any usable form during the foreseeable future. Income is being accrued based on the investee’s reported earnings not on the dividends collected by the investor. Frequently, equity income will exceed the cash dividends received by the investor with no assurance that the difference will ever be forthcoming.

 

Many companies have contractual provisions (e.g., debt covenants, managerial compensation agreements) based on ratios in the main body of the financial statements. Relative to consolidation, a firm employing the equity method will report smaller values for assets and liabilities. Consequently, higher rates of return for its assets and sales, as well as lower debt-to-equity ratios may result. Meeting the provisions of such contracts may provide managers strong incentives to maintain technical eligibility to use the equity method rather than full consolidation.

 

  1. APB Opinion 18 requires that a change to the equity method be reflected by a retrospective Although a different method may have been appropriate for the original investment, comparable balances will not be readily apparent if the equity method is now applied. For this reason, financial figures from all previous years are restated as if the equity method had been applied consistently since the date of initial acquisition.

 

  1. In reporting equity earnings for the current year, Riggins must separate its accrual into two income components: (1) operating income and (2) extraordinary gain. This handling enables the reader of the investor’s financial statements to assess the nature of the earnings that are being reported. As a prerequisite, any unusual and infrequent item recognized by the investee must also be judged as material to the operations of Riggins for separate disclosure by the investor to be necessary.

 

  1. Under the equity method, losses are recognized by an investor at the time that they are reported by the investee. However, because of the conservatism inherent in accounting, any

 

 

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permanent losses in value should also be recorded immediately. Because the investee’s stock has suffered a permanent impairment in this question, the investor recognizes the loss applicable to its investment.

 

  1. Following the guidelines established by the Accounting Principles Board, Wilson would be expected to recognize an equity loss of $120,000 (40 percent) stemming from Andrews’ reported loss. However, since the book value of this investment is only $100,000, Wilson’s loss is limited to that amount with the remaining $20,000 being omitted. Subsequent income will be recorded by the investor based on the dividends received. If Andrews is ever able to generate sufficient future profits to offset the total unrecognized losses, the investor will revert to the equity method.

 

  1. In accounting, goodwill is derived as a residual figure. It refers to the investor’s cost in excess of the fair market value of the underlying assets and liabilities of the investee. Goodwill is computed by first determining the amount of the purchase price that equates to the acquired portion of the investee’s book value. Payments attributable to increases and decreases in the market value of specific assets or liabilities are then determined. If the price paid by the investor exceeds both the corresponding book value and the amounts assignable to specific accounts, the remainder is presumed to represent goodwill. Although a portion of the acquisition price may represent either goodwill or valuation adjustments to specific investee assets and liabilities, the investor records the entire cost in a single investment account. No separate identification of the cost components is made in the reporting process. Subsequently, the cost figures attributed to specific accounts (having a limited life), besides goodwill and other indefinite life assets, are amortized based on their anticipated lives. This amortization reduces the investment and the accrued income in future years.

 

  1. On June 19, Princeton removes the portion of this investment account that has been sold and recognizes the resulting gain or loss. For proper valuation purposes, the equity method is applied (based on the 40 percent ownership) from the beginning of Princeton’s fiscal year until June 19. Princeton’s method of accounting for any remaining shares after June 19 will depend upon the degree of influence that is retained. If Princeton still has the ability to significantly influence the operating and financial policies of Yale, the equity method continues to be appropriate based on the reduced percentage of ownership. Conversely, if Princeton no longer holds this ability, the market-value method becomes applicable.

 

  1. Downstream sales are made by the investor to the investee while upstream sales are from the investee to the investor. These titles have been derived from the traditional positions given to the two parties when presented on an organization-type chart. Under the equity method, no accounting distinction is actually drawn between downstream and upstream sales. Separate presentation is made in this chapter only because the distinction does become significant in the consolidation process as will be demonstrated in Chapter Five.

 

  1. The unrealized portion of an intercompany gain is computed based on the markup on any transferred inventory retained by the buyer at year’s end. The markup percentage (based on sales price) multiplied by the intercompany ending inventory gives the total profit. The product of the ownership percentage and this profit figure is the unrealized gain from the intercompany transaction. This gain is deferred in the recognition of equity earnings until subsequently earned through use or resale to an unrelated party.

 

 

 

 

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  1. Intercompany transfers do not affect the financial reporting of the investee except that the related party transactions must be appropriately disclosed and labeled.

 

Answers to Problems

 

  1. D

 

  1. B

 

  1. C

 

……………….

4. A Acquisition price …………………………………………………………………. $1,600,000
Equity income ($560,000 × 40%) ……………………………………………. 224,000
Dividends (50,000 shares × $2.00) …………………………………………. (100,000)
Investment in Harrison Corporation as of December 31 …………. $1,724,000
5. A Acquisition price ………………………………………………. $700,000
Income accruals: 2008—$170,000 × 20% …………….. 34,000
2009—$210,000 × 20% …………….. 42,000
Amortization (below): 2008 ………………………………… (10,000)
Amortization: 2009 ……………………………………………. (10,000)
Dividends: 2008—$70,000 × 20% ………………………… (14,000)
2009—$70,000 × 20% ………………………… (14,000)
Investment in Bremm, December 31, 2009 ……… $728,000
Acquisition price ………………………………………………. $700,000
Bremm’s net assets acquired ($3,000,000 × 20%) … (600,000)
Patent ………………………………………………………………. $100,000
Annual amortization (10 year life) ……………………… $10,000
6. B  Purchase Price of Baskett Stock $500,000
Book Value of Baskett ($900,000 × 40%) ……. (360,000)
Cost in Excess of Book Value ……………… $140,000 Life Annual
Payment identified with undervalued ……….. Amortization
Building ($140,000 × 40%) …………………… 56,000 7 yrs. $8,000
Trademark ($210,000 × 40%) ………………… 84,000 10 yrs. 8,400
Total ……………………………………………………… $ -0- $16,400
……………………………………………………CostofPurchase $500,000
Income Accrued ($90,000 × 40%)………………………… 36,000
Amortization (above) …………………………………………. (16,400)
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Dividend Collected ($30,000 × 40%) …………………… (12,000)
Investment in Baskett …………………………………… $507,600
7.  D  The 2008 purchase must be reported using the equity method.
Purchase Price of Goldman Stock ………………………………………… $600,000
Book Value of Goldman Stock ($1,200,000 × 40%) …………………. (480,000)
Goodwill ……………………………………………………………………………… $120,000
Life of Goodwill …………………………………………………………………… indefinite
Annual Amortization ……………………………………………………………. (-0-)
Cost on January 1, 2008 ………………………………………………………. $600,000
2008 Income Accrued ($140,000 x 40%) …………………………………. 56,000
2008 Dividend Collected ($50,000 × 40%) ………………………………. (20,000)
2009 Income Accrued ($140,000 × 40%) …………………………………. 56,000
2009 Dividend Collected ($50,000 × 40%) ………………………………. (20,000)
2010 Income Accrued ($140,000 × 40%) …………………………………. 56,000
2010 Dividend Collected ($50,000 × 40%) ………………………………. (20,000)
Investment in Goldman, 12/31/10 ……………………………………… $708,000

 

  1. D

 

  1. A Gross Profit Markup: $36,000/$90,000 = 40%

 

Inventory Remaining at Year-End …………………………………………. $20,000
Markup ……………………………………………………………………………….. × 40%
Unrealized Gain ………………………………………………………………. $8,000
Ownership ………………………………………………………………………….. × 30%
Intercompany Unrealized Gain—Deferred …………………………. $2,400

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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10. B  Purchase Price of Steinbart Shares ………………………………………. $530,000
Book Value of Steinbart Shares ($1,200,000 × 40%) ……………….. (480,000)
Tradename ………………………………………………………………………….. $50,000
Life of Tradename ……………………………………………………………….. 20 years
Annual Amortization ……………………………………………………………. $2,500
2008 Gross Profit Markup = $30,000/$100,000 = 30%
2009 Gross Profit Markup = $54,000/$150,000 = 36%
2009—Equity Income in Steinbart:
Income Accrual ($110,000 × 40%) ………………………………………….. $44,000
Amortization (above) ……………………………………………………………. (2,500)
Recognition of 2008 Unrealized Gain
($25,000 × 30% markup × 40% ownership) ………………………… +  3,000
Deferral of 2009 Unrealized Gain
($45,000 × 36% markup × 40% ownership …………………………. (6,480)
Equity Income in Steinbart—2009 …………………………………….. $38,020
11. (6 minutes) (Investment account after one year)
Acquisition price …………………………………………………………………….. $ 990,000
Equity income ($260,000 × 40%) ……………………………………………….. 104,000
Dividends (80,000 × 40%) ……………………………………………………… (32,000)
Amortization of patent:
Excess payment ($990,000 – $790,000 = $200,000)
Allocated over 10 year life ……………………………………………….. (20,000)
Investment in Clem as of December 31, 2009 …………………………. $1,042,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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12. (10 minutes) (Investment account after two years)
Acquisition Price …………………………………………………………………….. $60,000
Book Value—assets minus liabilities ($125,000 × 40%) …………… 50,000
Excess Payment ……………………………………………………………… $10,000
Value of patent in excess of book value ($15,000 × 40%) ………… 6,000
Goodwill ……………………………………………………………………………… $4,000
Amortization:
Patent ($6,000/6) ……………………………………………………………… $1,000
Goodwill ………………………………………………………………………… -0-
Annual amortization …………………………………………………… $1,000
Acquisition price …………………………………………………………………. $60,000
Equity income 2008 ($30,000 × 40%) ……………………………………… 12,000
Dividends—2008 ($10,000 × 40%) ………………………………………….. (4,000)
Amortization—2008 (above) …………………………………………………. (1,000)
Investment in Holister, 12/31/08 ……………………………………………. $67,000
Equity income—2009 ($50,000 × 40%) …………………………………… 20,000
Dividends—2009 ($15,000 × 40%) ………………………………………….. (6,000)
Amortization—2009 (above) …………………………………………………. (1,000)
Investment in Holister, 12/31/09 ……………………………………………. $80,000

 

 

  1. (10 minutes) (Equity entries for one year, includes intercompany transfers but no unearned gain)

 

 

Purchase Price of Batson Stock …………………………………………… $210,000
Book Value of Batson Stock ($360,000 × 40%) ……………………….. (144,000)
Goodwill ……………………………………………………………………………… $66,000
Life …………………………………………………………………………………….. Indefinite
Annual Amortization ……………………………………………………………. $ -0-

 

 

No unearned intercompany gain exists at year’s end because all of the transferred merchandise was used during the period.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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13. (continued)
Investment in Batson, Inc. …………………………………. 210,000
Cash (or a liability) ……………………………………….. 210,000
To record acquisition of a 40 percent interest in Batson.
Investment in Batson, Inc. …………………………………. 32,000
Equity in Investee Income …………………………….. 32,000
To recognize 40 percent income earned during period by Batson, an
investment recorded by means of the equity method.
Cash ………………………………………………………………… 10,000
Investment in Batson, Inc. …………………………….. 10,000

 

To record collection of dividend from investee recorded by means of the equity method.

 

 

 

  1. (20 Minutes) (Equity entries for one year, includes conversion to equity method)

 

 

The 2008 purchase must be restated to the equity method.

 

 

FIRST PURCHASE—JANUARY 1, 2008
Purchase Price of Denton Stock ……………………………….. $210,000
Book Value of Denton Stock ($1,700,000 × 10%)…………. (170,000)
Cost in Excess of Book Value …………………………………… $40,000
Excess Cost Assigned to Undervalued Land
($100,000 × 10%) …………………………………………………… (10,000)
Trademark ……………………………………………………………….. $30,000
Life of Trademark …………………………………………………….. 10 years
Annual Amortization ………………………………………………… $3,000
BOOK VALUE—DENTON—JANUARY 1, 2008
January 1, 2008 Book Value (given) …………………………… $1,700,000
2008 Net Income ………………………………………………………. 240,000
2008 Dividends ………………………………………………………… (90,000)
January 1, 2009 Book Value ………………………………….. $1,850,000

 

 

 

 

 

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14. (continued)
SECOND PURCHASE—JANUARY 1, 2009
Purchase Price of Denton Stock ……………………………. $600,000
Book Value of Denton Stock (above)($1,850,000 × 30%) (555,000)
Cost in Excess of Book Value ……………………………….. $45,000
Excess Cost Assigned to Undervalued Land
($120,000 × 30%) ……………………………………………….. (36,000)
Trademark ……………………………………………………………. $9,000
Life of Trademark …………………………………………………. 9 years
Annual Amortization …………………………………………….. $1,000

 

Entry One—To record second acquisition of Denton stock.

 

Investment in Denton ………………………………………… 600,000
Cash ……………………………………………………………. 600,000

 

Entry Two—To restate reported figures for 2008 to the equity method for comparability. Reported income will be $24,000 (10% of Denton’s income) less $3,000 (amortization on first purchase) for a net figure of $21,000. Originally, $9,000 would have been reported by Walters (10% of the dividends). Adjustment here raises the $9,000 to $21,000 for 2008.

 

Investment in Denton ………………………………………… 12,000
Retained Earnings—Prior Period Adjustment—
2008 Equity Income ………………………………………. 12,000

 

Entry Three—To record income for the year: 40% of the $300,000 reported balance.

 

Investment in Denton ………………………………………… 120,000
Equity Income—Investment in Denton …………… 120,000

 

Entry Four—To record collection of dividends from Denton (40%).

 

Cash ………………………………………………………………… 44,000
Investment in Denton……………………………………. 44,000

 

 

Entry Five—To record amortization for 2009: $3,000 from first purchase and $1,000 from second.

 

 

Equity Income—Investment in Denton ……………….. 4,000
Investment in Denton……………………………………. 4,000


 

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15. (5 minutes) (Deferral of unrealized gain)
Ending Inventory ($225,000 – $105,000) ……………………………………. $120,000
Gross Profit Markup ($75,000/$225,000) ……………………………………. 33 1/3%
Unrealized Gain …………………………………………………………………… $40,000
Ownership ……………………………………………………………………………… × 25%
Intercompany Unrealized Gain—Deferred ……………………………… $10,000
Entry to Defer Unrealized Gain:
Equity Income—Investment in Schilling ………………… 10,000
Investment in Schilling ……………………………………… 10,000
16. (10 minutes) (Reporting of equity income and transfers)
a.  Equity in investee income:
Equity income accrual ($80,000 × 30%) …………………………….. $24,000
Less: deferral of intercompany unrealized gain (below) ……. (4,500)
Less: patent amortization (given) ……………………………………. (9,000)
Equity in investee income …………………………………………… $10,500
Deferral of intercompany unrealized gain:
Remaining inventory—end of year ………………………………. $40,000
Gross profit percentage ($30,000/$80,000)……………………. × 37.5%
Profit within remaining inventory ………………………………… $15,000
Ownership percentage ……………………………………………….. × 30.0%
Intercompany unrealized gain ……………………………………………… $4,500

 

 

  1. In 2009, the deferral of $4,500 will probably become realized by Hager’s use or sale of this inventory. Thus, the equity accrual for 2009 will be increased by $4,500 in that year. Recognition of this amount is simply being delayed from 2008 until 2009, the year actually earned.

 

 

  1. The direction (upstream versus downstream) of the intercompany transfer does not affect the above answers. However as discussed in Chapter Five, a difference is created within the consolidation process by the direction of this transaction. Under the equity method, though, the accounting is

 

 

 

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identical regardless of whether an upstream transfer has occurred or a downstream transfer.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. (20 minutes) (Conversion from fair-value method to equity method with a subsequent sale of a portion of the investment)

 

 

Equity method income accrual for 2009
30 percent of $500,000 for ½ year = ……………………………… $ 75,000
28 percent of $500,000 for ½ year = ……………………………… 70,000
Total income accrual (no amortization or unearned gains) …. $145,000
Gain on sale of 2,000 shares of Brown:
Cost of initial acquisition—2007 …………………………………………… $250,000
10% income accrual (conversion made to equity method) ……… 35,000
10% of dividends …………………………………………………………………. (10,000)
Cost of second acquisition—2008 ………………………………………… 590,000
30% income accrual (conversion made to equity method) ……… 144,000
30% of dividends—2008 ……………………………………………………….. (33,000)
30% income accrual for ½ year …………………………………………….. 75,000
30% of dividends for ½ year …………………………………………………. (18,000)
Book value on July 1, 2009 ……………………………………………… $1,033,000
Book value of shares sold: $1,033,000 × 2,000/30,000 ……………. $ 68,867
Cash collected: 2,000 shares × $46 ………………………………………. (92,000)
Gain on sale ……………………………………………………………………. $ 23,133

 

 

  1. (25 minutes) (Verbal overview of equity method, includes conversion to equity method)

 

 

  1. In 2008, the fair-value method (available-for-sale security) was appropriate. Thus, the only income recognized was the dividends received. Collins should originally have reported dividend income equal to 10 percent of the payments made by Merton.

 

 

  1. The assumption is that Collins’ level of ownership now provides the company with the ability to exercise significant influence over the operating and financial policies of Merton. Factors that indicate such a level of influence are described in the textbook and include representation on the investee’s board of directors, material intercompany transactions, and interchange of managerial personnel.


 

 

 

 

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  1. (continued)

 

 

  1. Despite holding 25 percent of Merton’s outstanding stock, application of the equity method is not appropriate if the ability to apply significant influence is absent. Factors that indicate a lack of such influence include: an agreement whereby the owner surrenders significant rights, a concentration of the remaining ownership, and failure to gain representation on the board of directors.

 

 

  1. The equity method attempts to reflect the relationship between the investor and the investee in two ways. First, the investor recognizes investment income as soon as it is earned by the investee. Second, the Investment account reported by the investor is increased and decreased to indicate changes in the underlying book value of the investee.

 

 

  1. Criticisms of the equity method include

 

  • its emphasis on the 20-50% of voting stock in determining significant influence vs. control

 

  • allowing off-balance sheet financing

 

  • potential biasing of performance ratios

 

Relative to consolidation, the equity method will report smaller amounts for assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. However, income is typically the same as reported under consolidation. Therefore, the company that can use the equity method, and avoid consolidation, is often able to improve its debt-to equity ratios, as well as ratios for returns on assets and sales.

 

 

  1. When an investor buys enough additional shares to gain the ability to exert significant influence, accounting for any shares previously owned must be adjusted to the equity method on a retroactive basis. Thus, in this case, the 10 percent interest held by Collins in 2008 must now be reported using the equity method. In this manner, the 2008 statements will be more comparable with those of 2009 and future years.

 

 

  1. The price paid for each purchase is first compared to the equivalent book value on the date of acquisition. Any excess payment is then assigned to specific assets and liabilities based on differences between book value and fair market value. If any residual amount of the purchase price remains unexplained, it is assigned to goodwill.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. (continued)

 

 

  1. A dividend payment reduces the book value of the investee. Because a parallel is established between the book value of the investee and the investor’s Investment account, Collins records the dividend as a reduction in its Investment account. This method of recording also avoids double-counting of the revenue since the amount would have already been recorded by the investor when earned by the investee. Revenues cannot be recognized when earned by the investee and also when collected as a dividend.

 

  1. The Investment account will contain both of the amounts paid to acquire the ownership of Merton. In addition, an equity accrual equal to 10 percent of the investee’s income for 2008 and 25 percent for 2009 is included. The investment balance will be reduced by 10 percent of any dividends received during 2008 and 25 percent for the 2009 collections. Finally, the Investment account will be decreased by any amortization expense for both 2008 and 2009.

 

 

  1. (20 minutes) (Verbal overview of intercompany transfers and their impact on application of the equity method)

 

 

  1. An upstream transfer is one that goes from investee to investor whereas a downstream transfer is made by the investor to the investee.

 

 

  1. The direction of an intercompany transfer has no impact on reporting when the equity method is applied. The direction of the transfers was introduced in Chapter One because it does have an important impact on consolidation accounting as explained in Chapter Five.

 

 

  1. To determine the intercompany unrealized gain when applying the equity method, the transferred inventory that remains at year’s end is multiplied by the gross profit percentage. This computation derives the unrealized gain. The intercompany portion of this gain is found by multiplying it by the percentage of the investee that is owned by the investor.

 

 

  1. Parrot, as the investor, will accrue 42 percent of the income reported by Sunrise. However, this equity income will then be reduced by the amount of the unrealized intercompany gain. These amounts can be combined and recorded as a single entry, increasing both the Investment account and an Equity Income account. As an alternative, separate entries can be made. The equity accrual is added to these two accounts while the deferral of the unrealized gain serves as a reduction.

 

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  1. (continued)

 

  1. In the second year, Parrot again records an equity accrual for 42 percent of the income reported by Sunrise. The intercompany portion of the unrealized gain created by the transfers for that year are delayed in the same manner as for 2008 in (d) above. However, for 2009, the gain deferred from 2008 must now be recognized. This transferred merchandise was sold during this second year so that the earnings process has now been culminated.

 

  1. If none of the transferred merchandise remains at year-end, the intercompany transactions create no impact on the recording of the investment when applying the equity method. No gain remains unrealized.

 

  1. The intercompany transfers create no direct effects for Sunrise, the investee. However, as related party transactions, the amounts, as well as the relationship, must be properly disclosed and labeled.

 

  1. (15 minutes) (Verbal overview of the sale of a portion of an investment being reported on the equity method and the accounting for any shares that remain)

 

  1. The equity method must be applied to the date of the sale. Therefore, for the current year until August 1, an equity accrual must be recorded based on recognizing 40 percent of Brooks’ reported income for that period. In addition, any dividends conveyed by Brooks must be recorded by Einstein as a reduction in the book value of the investment account. Finally, amortization of specific allocations within the purchase price must be recorded through August 1. These entries will establish an appropriate book value as of the date of sale. Then, an amount of that book value equal to the portion of the shares being sold is removed in order to compute the resulting gain or loss.

 

  1. The subsequent recording of the remaining shares depends on the influence that is retained. If Einstein continues to have the ability to apply significant influence to the operating and financial decisions of Brooks, the equity method is still applicable based on a lower percentage of ownership. However, if that level of influence has been lost, Einstein should report the remaining shares by means of the fair-value method.

 

  1. In this situation, three figures would be reported by Einstein. First, an equity income balance is recorded that includes both the accrual and amortization prior to August 1. Second, a gain or loss should be shown for the sale of the shares. Third, any dividends received from the investee after


 

 

 

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August 1 must be included in Einstein’s income statement as dividend revenue.

 

 

  1. (continued)

 

  1. No, the ability to apply significant influence to the investee was present prior to August 1 so that the equity method was appropriate. No change is made in those figures. However, after the sale, the remaining investment must be accounted for by means of the fair-value method.

 

 

  1. (12 minutes) (Equity balances for one year includes intercompany transfers)

 

 

a.  Equity income accrual—2009 ($90,000 × 30%) …………………….. $27,000
Amortization—2009 (given) ……………………………………………….. (9,000)
Intercompany gain recognized on 2008 transfer* ………………… 1,200
Intercompany gain deferred on 2009 transfer** …………………… (2,640)
Equity income recognized by Russell in 2009 ………………… $16,560
*Markup on 2008 transfer ($16,000/$40,000) ………………………… 40%
Unrealized gain:
Remaining inventory (40,000 × 25%) ……………………………… $ 10,000
Markup (above) ……………………………………………………………. × 40%
Ownership percentage …………………………………………………. × 30%
Intercompany gain deferred from 2008 until 2009 …………… $1,200
**Markup on 2009 transfer ($22,000/$50,000) ………………………. 44%
Unrealized gain:
Remaining inventory (50,000 × 40%) ……………………………… $20,000
Markup (above) ……………………………………………………………. × 44%
Ownership percentage …………………………………………………. × 30%
Intercompany gain deferred from 2009 until 2010 …………… $2,640
b.  Investment in Thacker, 1/1/09 ……………………………………………. $335,000
Equity income—2009 (see [a] above) …………………………………. 16,560
Dividends—2009 ($30,000 × 30%) ………………………………………. (9,000)
Investment in Thacker, 12/31/09…………………………………………. $342,560

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. (20 Minutes) (Equity method balances after conversion to equity method. Must determine investee’s book value)

 

 

Part a
Net book value of Zach at date of Ace’s purchases
Net book value—December 31, 2009 (given) ……………………….. $390,000
Remove 2009 increase in book value
($100,000 net income less $40,000 in dividends) ……………. (60,000)
Net book value—January 1, 2009 ………………………………….. $330,000
Remove 2008 increase in book value
($80,000 net income less $30,000 in dividends) ……………… (50,000)
Net book value—January 1, 2008 ………………………………….. $280,000
Allocation and annual amortization—first purchase
Purchase price of 15 percent interest…………………………………. $52,000
Net book value ($280,000 × 15%) ……………………………………….. (42,000)
Franchise agreements ………………………………………………………. $10,000
Life of franchise agreements …………………………………………….. ¸ 10 years
Annual amortization …………………………………………………….. $1,000
Allocation and annual amortization—second purchase
Purchase price of 10 percent interest…………………………………. $43,800
Net book value ($330,000 × 10%) ……………………………………….. (33,000)
Franchise agreements ………………………………………………………. $10,800
Life of franchise agreements …………………………………………….. ¸ 9 years
Annual amortization …………………………………………………….. $1,200
Investment in Zach account
January 1, 2008 purchase ………………………………………………….. $52,000
2008 equity income accrual ($80,000 × 15%) ……………………….. 12,000
2008 amortization on first purchase (above) ………………………. (1,000)
2008 dividend payments ($30,000 × 15%) ……………………………. (4,500)
January 1, 2009 purchase ………………………………………………….. 43,800
2009 equity income accrual ($100,000 × 25%) ……………………… 25,000
2009 amortization on first purchase (above) ………………………. (1,000)
2009 amortization on second purchase (above) ………………….. (1,200)
2009 dividend payments ($40,000 × 25%) ……………………………. (10,000)

 

 

 

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Investment in Zach accounting—December 31, 2009 ……… $115,100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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22. (continued)
Part b
Equity Income—2009
2009 equity income accrual ($100,000 × 25%) ……………………… $25,000
2009 amortization on first purchase (above) ………………………. (1,000)
2009 amortization on second purchase (above) ………………….. (1,200)
Equity income—2009 ……………………………………………………. $22,800

 

 

Part c

 

 

The January 1, 2009 retroactive adjustments to record the Investment in Zach under the equity method would appear as follows:

 

 

Unrealized holding gain—shareholders’ equity 8,000
Fair value adjustment (available-for-sale securities) 8,000
Investment in Zach 6,500
Retaining earnings 6,500

 

 

  1. (30 minutes) (Conversion to equity method, sale of investment, and unrealized gains)

 

 

Part a

 

 

Allocation and annual amortization—first purchase
Purchase price of 10 percent interest…………………………………. $92,000
Net book value ($800,000 × 10%) ……………………………………….. (80,000)
Copyright …………………………………………………………………………. $12,000
Life of copyright ……………………………………………………………………. ¸ 16 years
Annual amortization ………………………………………………………………. $750

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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23. Part a (continued)
Allocation and annual amortization—second purchase
Purchase price of 20 percent interest…………………………………. $210,000
Net book value ($800,000 is increased by $180,000
income but decreased by $80,000 in dividend
payments) ($900,000 × 20%) …………………………………………. (180,000)
Copyright …………………………………………………………………………. $30,000
Life of copyright ……………………………………………………………………. ¸ 15 years
Annual amortization ………………………………………………………………. $2,000
Equity income—2007 (After conversion to establish
comparability)
2007 equity income accrual ($180,000 × 10%) ………………………….. $18,000
2007 amortization on first purchase (above) ……………………………. (750)
Equity income—2007 ………………………………………………………… $17,250
Equity income 2008
2008 equity income accrual ($210,000 × 30%) ……………………… $63,000
2008 amortization on first purchase (above) ………………………. (750)
2008 amortization on second purchase (above) ………………….. (2,000)
Equity income 2008 ……………………………………………………………….. $60,250
Part b
Investment in Barringer
Purchase price—January 1, 2007 ……………………………………………. $92,000
2007 equity income (above) ………………………………………………. 17,250
2007 dividends ($80,000 × 10%) …………………………………………. (8,000)
Purchase price January 1, 2008 ……………………………………………… 210,000
2008 equity income (above) ………………………………………………. 60,250
2008 dividends ($100,000 × 30%) ……………………………………….. (30,000)
2009 equity income accrual ($230,000 × 30%) ……………………… 69,000
2009 amortization on first purchase (above) ………………………. (750)
2009 amortization on second purchase (above) ………………….. (2,000)
2009 dividends ($100,000 × 30%) ……………………………………….. (30,000)
Investment in Barringer—12/31/09 ………………………………………….. $377,750

 

 

 

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23. Part b (continued)
Gain on sale of investment in Barringer
Sales price (given) ……………………………………………………………. $400,000
Book value 1/1/10 (above) …………………………………………………. (377,750)
Gain on sale of investment …………………………………………… $22,250
Part c
Deferral of 2008 unrealized gain into 2009
Ending inventory………………………………………………………………. $20,000
Gross profit percentage ($15,000/$50,000) ………………………….. × 30%
Unrealized gain ……………………………………………………………. $6,000
Anderson’s ownership ……………………………………………………… × 30%
Unrealized intercompany gain ………………………………………. $1,800
Deferral of 2009 unrealized gain into 2010
Ending inventory………………………………………………………………. $40,000
Gross profit percentage ($27,000/$60,000) ………………………….. × 45%
Unrealized gain ……………………………………………………………. $18,000
Anderson’s ownership ……………………………………………………… × 30%
Unrealized intercompany gain ………………………………………. $5,400
Equity income—2009
2009 equity income accrual ($230,000 × 30%) ……………………… $69,000
2009 amortization on first purchase (above) ………………………. (750)
2009 amortization on second purchase (above) ………………….. (2,000)
Realization of 2008 intercompany gain (above) …………………… 1,800
Deferral of 2009 intercompany gain (above) ……………………….. (5,400)
Equity Income—2009 ……………………………………………………. $62,650

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. (40 Minutes) (Conversion to equity method and equity reporting after several years)

 

 

a.  Annual Amortization
October 1, 2007 purchase
Purchase price …………………………………………………………………. $7,475
Book value, 10/1/07:
As of 1/1/07 ……………………………………………….. $100,000
Increment 1/1/07-10/1/07 (income less
dividends) ($12,000 × 3/4) ……………………….. 9,000
$109,000
Acquisition …………………………………………………… × 5% 5,450
Intangible assets …………………………………………… $2,025
Life ………………………………………………………………. 15 years
Annual amortization—first purchase ………………. $135
July 1, 2008 purchase
Purchase price ……………………………………………… $14,900
Book value, 7/1/08:
As of 1/1/08 …………………………………………… $112,000
Increment 1/1/08—7/1/08 ($14,000 × 6/12) .. 7,000
$119,000
Acquisition …………………………………………………… × 10% 11,900
Intangible assets …………………………………………… $3,000
Life ………………………………………………………………. 15 years
Annual amortization—second purchase …………. $200
December 31, 2009 purchase
Purchase price ……………………………………………… $34,200
Book value, 12/31/09:
As of 1/1/09 …………………………………………… $126,000
Increment 1/1/09-12/31/09 ………………………………. 15,000
$141,000
Acquisition …………………………………………………… × 20% 28,200
Intangible assets …………………………………………… $6,000
Life ………………………………………………………………. 15 years
Annual amortization—third purchase …………….. $400
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  1. a (continued)

 

Equity Income Reported by Smith

 

 

Reported for 2007 (3 months) (after conversion
to equity method):
Accrual ($20,000 × 3/12 × 5%) ……………….. $250.00
Amortization on first purchase ($135 × 3/12) (33.75)
Equity income 2007 …………………………. $216.25

 

 

Reported for 2008 (5% for entire year and an additional 10%
for last 6 months) (after conversion to equity method):
Accrual—first purchase ($30,000 × 5%) …………………….. 1,500
Accrual—second purchase ($30,000 × 6/12 × 10%) …….. 1,500
Amortization on first purchase …………………………………. (135)
Amortization on second purchase ($200 × 6/12) ………… (100)
Equity Income—2008 ………………………………………….. $2,765
Reported for 2009 (15% for entire year; since final
acquisition was made on last day of year, neither
income nor amortization are recognized):
Accrual ($24,000 × 15%) …………………………………………… $3,600
Amortization on first purchase …………………………………. (135)
Amortization on second purchase ……………………………. (200)
Equity income—2009 ………………………………………….. $3,265
b.  Investment in Barker
Cost—first purchase …………………………………………………………. $7,475.00
Cost—second purchase ……………………………………………………. 14,900.00
Cost—third purchase………………………………………………………… 34,200.00
Equity Income (above)
2007 ……………………………………………………………………………… 216.25
2008 ……………………………………………………………………………… 2,765.00
2009 ……………………………………………………………………………… 3,265.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. b (continued)

 

 

Less: dividends received
2007 ($8,000 × 3/12 × 5%) ……………………………………………….. (100.00)
2008 ($16,000 × 5% and $16,000 × 2/4 × 10%) …………………… (1,600.00)
2009 ($9,000 × 15%) ……………………………………………………….. (1,350.00)
Balance ……………………………………………………………………………. $59,771.25

 

 

  1. (25 Minutes) (Preparation of journal entries for two years, includes losses and intercompany transfers of inventory)

 

 

Journal Entries for Hobson Co.

 

 

1/1/08 Investment in Stokes Co. ………… 210,000
Cash …………………………………. 210,000
(To record initial investment)
During Cash ………………………………………. 4,000
2008 Investment in Stokes Co. ……. 4,000
(To record receipt of dividend)
12/31/08 Equity in Stokes Income—Loss .. 16,000
Extraordinary Loss of Stokes ….. 8,000
Investment in Stokes Co. ……. 24,000
(To record accrual of income as earned by
equity investee, 40% of reported balances)
12/31/08 Equity in Stokes Income—Loss .. 3,300
Investment in Stokes Co. ……. 3,300

 

(To record amortization relating to acquisition of Stokes—see Schedule 1 below)


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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25. (continued)
12/31/08 Equity in Stokes Income-Loss …. 2,000
Investment in Stokes Co. ……. 2,000
(To defer unrealized gain on intercompany
sale see Schedule 2 below)
During Cash ………………………………………. 4,800
2009 Investment in Stokes Co. ……. 4,800
(To record receipt of dividend)
12/31/09 Investment in Stokes Co. ………… 16,000
Equity in Stokes Income …….. 16,000
(To record 40% accrual of income as earned by
equity investee)
12/31/09 Equity in Stokes Income …………. 3,300
Investment in Stokes Co. ……. 3,300
(To record amortization relating to acquisition
of Stokes)
12/31/09 Investment in Stokes Co. ………… 2,000
Equity in Stokes Income …….. 2,000
(To recognize income deferred from 2008)
12/31/09 Equity in Stokes Income …………. 3,600
Investment in Stokes Co. ……. 3,600
(To defer unrealized gain on intercompany
sale—see Schedule 3 below)
Schedule 1—Allocation of Acquisition Price and Related Amortization
Acquisition price ……………………………………………… $210,000
Percentage of book value acquired
($400,000 × 40%)……………………………………………. (160,000)
Payment in excess of book value ……………………….. $50,000


 

 

 

 

 

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25. (continued)
Annual
Excess payment identified with specific Life Amortization
assets
Building ($40,000 × 40%) 16,000 10 yrs. $1,600
Royalty agreement ($85,000 × 40%) $34,000 20 yrs. 1,700
Total annual amortization $3,300
Schedule 2—Deferral of Unrealized Gain—2008
Inventory remaining at end of year …………………………………………. $15,000
Gross profit percentage ($30,000/$90,000) ………………………………. × 33 1/3%
Gross profit remaining in inventory …………………………………… $5,000
Ownership percentage…………………………………………………………… × 40%
Unrealized gain to be deferred until 2009 …………………………… $2,000
Schedule 3—Deferral of Unrealized Gain—2009
Inventory remaining at end of year (30%) ………………………………… $24,000
Gross profit percentage ($30,000/$80,000) ………………………………. × 37 1/2%
Gross profit remaining in inventory …………………………………… $9,000
Ownership percentage…………………………………………………………… × 40%
Unrealized gain to be deferred until 2010 …………………………… $3,600

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. (35 Minutes) (Reporting of investment sale with equity method applied both before and after. Includes intercompany inventory transfers)

 

Income effects for year ending December 31, 2009
Equity income in Scranton, Inc. (Schedule 1) ……………………… $107,774
Extraordinary Loss—Scranton, Inc. ($120,000 × 32 percent) …….. $(38,400)
Gain on sale of Investment in Scranton, Inc. (Schedule 2) ……….. $30,579
Schedule 1—Equity Income in Scranton, Inc.
Investee income accrual—operations
$320,000 × 40 percent × 7/12 year …………………… $74,667
$320,000 × 32 percent × 5/12 year …………………… 42,667 $117,334
Amortization
$12,000 × 7/12 year ………………………………………… $7,000
After 20 percent of stock is sold (8,000/40,000
shares): $12,000 × 80 percent × 5/12 year …… 4,000 $(11,000)
Recognition of unrealized gain
Remaining inventory—12/31/08 ……………………… $9,000
Gross profit percentage on original sale
($20,000/$50,000) ……………………………………… × 40%
Gross profit remaining in inventory ……………….. $3,600
Ownership percentage ………………………………….. × 40%
Intercompany gain recognized in 2009 …………… $1,440
Equity income in Scranton, Inc. ………………… $107,774

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. (continued)

 

 

Schedule 2—Gain on Sale of Investment in Scranton, Inc.

 

 

Book value—investment in Scranton, Inc.—1/1/09
(given) ………………………………………………………….. $248,000
Investee Income accrual—1/1/09 – 8/1/09 (Schedule 1) 74,667
Amortization—1/1/09 – 8/1/09 (Schedule 1) ………….. (7,000)
Recognition of deferred gain (Schedule 1)…………… 1,440
Book value—Investment in Scranton, Inc.—8/1/09 … $317,107
Percentage of investment sold (8,000/40,000
shares) …………………………………………………………. × 20%
Book value of shares being sold ………………………… $63,421 (rounded)
Sales price ………………………………………………………… 94,000
Gain on sale of investment in Scranton, Inc. …… $30,579

 

 

  1. (30 Minutes) (Compute equity balances for three years. Includes intercompany inventory transfer)

 

Part a.

 

 

Equity Income 2007
Basic equity accrual ($550,000 × ½ year × 35%) $96,250…………………..
Amortization (1/2 year—see Schedule 1) …………………………….. (26,500)
Equity income—2007 ……………………………………………………. $69,750
Equity Income 2008
Basic equity accrual ($575,000 × 35%)………………………………. $201,250
Amortization (see Schedule 1) …………………………………………. (53,000)
Deferral of unrealized gain (see Schedule 2) …………………….. (9,800)
Equity Income—2008 ………………………………………………….. $138,450
Equity Income 2009
Basic equity accrual ($620,000 × 35%)………………………………. $217,000
Amortization (see Schedule 1) …………………………………………. (53,000)
Recognition of deferred gain (see Schedule 2) …………………. 9,800
Equity Income—2009 ………………………………………………….. $173,800
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  1. (continued)

 

 

Schedule 1—Acquisition Price Allocation and Amortization

 

 

Acquisition price (75,000 shares × $13) $900,000
Book value acquired ($1,600,000 × 35%) 560,000
Payment in excess of book value $340,000

 

 

Excess payment identified with specific Annual
assets Life Amortization
Equipment ($150,000 × 35%) $52,500 7 yrs. $7,500
Copyright 227,500 5 yrs. 45,500
Goodwill 60,000 indefinite -0-
Total annual amortization (full year) $53,000
Schedule 2—Deferral of Unrealized Intercompany Gain
Inventory remaining at December 31, 2008 …………………………… $70,000
Markup percentage ($60,000/$150,000) …………………………………. × 40%
Total markup………………………………………………………………………. $28,000
Investor ownership percentage …………………………………………… × 35%
Unrealized intercompany gain (profit deferred from
2008 until 2009) ……………………………………………………………… $9,800
Part b.
Investment in Miller—December 31, 2009 balance
Acquisition price ………………………………………………………………… $900,000
2007 Equity income (above) ………………………………………………… 69,750
2007 Dividends received during half year (75,000 shares × $1.00) (75,000)
2008 Equity income (above) ………………………………………………… 138,450
2008 Dividends received (75,000 shares × $1.00 × 2) ……………… (150,000)
2009 Equity income (above) ………………………………………………… 173,800
2009 Dividends received (75,000 shares × $1.00 × 2) ……………… (150,000)
Investment in Miller—12/31/09 …………………………………….. $907,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. (65 Minutes) (Journal entries for several years. Includes conversion to equity method and a sale of a portion of the investment)

 

1/1/07 Investment in Sumter ………………… 192,000
Cash ……………………………………. 192,000
(To record cost of 16,000 shares of Sumter
Company.)
9/15/07 Cash …………………………………………. 8,000
Dividend Income …………………… 8,000
(Annual dividends received from Sumter
Company.)
9/15/08 Cash …………………………………………. 8,000
Dividend Income …………………… 8,000
(Annual dividends received from Sumter
Company.)
1/1/09 Investment in Sumter ………………… 965,750
Cash ……………………………………. 965,750
(To record cost of 64,000 additional shares of
Sumter Company.)
1/1/09 Investment in Sumter ………………… 36,800
Retained Earnings—Prior Period
Adjustment—Equity in Investee Income 36,800
(Retroactive adjustment necessitated by change

 

to equity method. Change in figures previously reported for 2007 and 2008 are calculated as follows.)


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. (continued)

 

2007 as reported 2007—equity method (as restated)
Income (dividends) ……… $8,000 Income (8% of $300,000
reported income) ……………………….. $24,000
Change in investment Change in investment balance (equity
Balance ……………………………. -0- income less dividends) ………………. $ 16,000
2008 as reported 2008—equity method (as restated)
Income (dividends) ……… $8,000 Income (8% of $360,000
reported income) ……………………….. $28,800
Change in investment Change in investment balance (equity
Balance ……………………………. -0- income less dividends) ………………. $ 20,800
2007 increase in reported income ($24,000 – $8,000) …………….. $16,000
2008 increase in reported income ($28,800 – $8,000) …………….. 20,800
Retroactive adjustment—income (above) …………………………….. $36,800
2007 increase in investment in Sumter balance—equity method $16,000
2008 increase in investment in Sumter balance—equity method 20,800
Retroactive adjustment—Investment in Sumter (above) ……. $36,800
9/15/09 Cash ………………………………………………….. 40,000
Investment in Sumter ……………………… 40,000
(Annual dividend received from Sumter
[40% of $100,000])
12/31/09 Investment in Sumter ………………………….. 160,000
Equity in Investee Income ………………. 160,000
(To accrue 2009 income based on 40%
ownership of Sumter)
12/31/09 Equity in Investee Income……………………. 3,370
Investment in Sumter ……………………… 3,370
(Amortization of $50,550 patent
[indicated in problem] over 15 years)

 

 

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  1. (continued)

 

7/1/10 Investment in Sumter ………………………….. 76,000
Equity in Investee Income ………………. 76,000
(To accrue 1/2 year income of 40% owner-
ship—$380,000 × 6/12 × 40%)
7/1/10 Equity in Investee Income……………………. 1,685
Investment in Sumter ……………………… 1,685
(To record 1/2 year amortization of patent
to establish correct book value for invest-
ment as of 7/1/10)
7/1/10 Cash …………………………………………………. 425,000
Investment in Sumter (rounded) ……… 346,374
Gain on Sale of Investment …………….. 78,626
(20,000 shares of Sumter Company sold;
write-off of investment computed below.)
Investment in Sumter and cost of shares sold
1/1/07 Acquisition …………………………………………………………. $192,000
1/1/09 Acquisition ………………………………………………………….. 965,750
1/1/09 Retroactive adjustment …………………………………………. 36,800
9/15/09 Dividends …………………………………………………………… (40,000)
12/31/09 Equity accrual …………………………………………………… 160,000
12/31/09 Amortization …………………………………………………….. (3,370)
7/1/10 Equity accrual ………………………………………………………. 76,000
7/1/10 Amortization ………………………………………………………… (1,685)
Investment in Sumter—7/1/10 balance ………………………… $1,385,495
Percentage of shares sold (20,000/80,000) ………………….. × 25%
Cost of shares sold (rounded) ……………………………………. $346,374
9/15/10 Cash …………………………………………………. 30,000
Investment in Sumter …………………….. 30,000
(To record annual dividend received)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. (continued)

 

 

12/31/10 Equity in Sumter …………………………………. 57,000
Equity in Investee income ………………. 57,000
(To record 1/2 year income based on
remaining 30% ownership – $380,000 ×
6/12 × 30%)
12/31/10 Equity in Investee Income……………………. 1,264 (rounded)
Investment in Sumter ……………………… 1,264
(To record 1/2 year of patent amortiza-
tion—computation presented below)
Annual patent amortization—original computation ……………….. $3,370
Percentage of shares retained (60,000/80,000) ………………………. × 75%
Annual patent amortization—current …………………………………… $2,527.50
Patent amortization for half year ………………………………………….. $1,263.75

 

 

 

  1. (25 Minutes) (Equity income balances for two years, includes intercompany transfers)

 

 

Equity Income 2008
Basic equity accrual ($250,000 × 30%)……………………………… $75,000
Amortization (see Schedule 1) ………………………………………… (18,000)
Deferral of unrealized gain (see Schedule 2) ……………………. (9,000)
Equity Income—2008 …………………………………………………. $48,000
Equity Income (Loss—2009)
Basic equity accrual ($100,000 [loss] × 30%) ……………………. $(30,000)
Amortization (see Schedule 1) ………………………………………… (18,000)
Realization of deferred gain (see Schedule 2) ………………….. 9,000
Deferral of unrealized gain (see Schedule 3) ……………………. (4,500)
Equity Loss—2009 …………………………………………………….. $(43,500)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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29. (continued)
Schedule 1
Acquisition price ……………………………………….. $770,000
Book value equivalency ($1,200,000 × 30%) …. 360,000
Payment in excess of book value ……………….. $410,000 Annual
Excess identified with specific assets Life Amortization
Customer list ($300,000 × 30%) 90,000 5 yrs. $18,000
Excess not identified with specific accounts
Goodwill $320,000 indefinite -0-
Total annual amortization $18,000
Schedule 2
Inventory remaining at December 31, 2008 …………………………… $80,000
Markup percentage ($60,000/$160,000) …………………………………. × 37.5%
Total markup………………………………………………………………………. $30,000
Investor ownership percentage …………………………………………… × 30%
Unrealized intercompany gain—12/31/08
(To be deferred until realized in 2009) ……………………………… $9,000
Schedule 3
Inventory remaining at December 31, 2009 …………………………… $75,000
Markup percentage ($35,000/$175,000) …………………………………. × 20%
Total markup………………………………………………………………………. $15,000
Investor ownership percentage …………………………………………… × 30%
Unrealized intercompany gain—12/31/09
(To be deferred until realized in 2010) ……………………………… $4,500

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Solutions to Develop Your Skills

 

Excel Assignment No. 1 (less difficult)—see textbook Website for the Excel file solution Parts 1, 2 and 3

 

Growth rate in income 10%
dividends $30,000
Cost $700,000 (given in problem)
Annual amortization $15,000
1st year PHC income $185,000
Percentage owned 40%
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
PHC reported income $74,000 $81,400 $89,540 $98,494 $108,343
Amortization 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000
Equity earnings $59,000 $66,400 $74,540 $83,494 $93,343
Beginning Balance $700,000 $747,000 $801,400 $863,940 $935,434
Equity earnings 59,000 66,400 74,540 83,494 93,343
Dividends (12,000) (12,000) (12,000) (12,000) (12,000)
Ending Balance $747,000 $801,400 $863,940 $935,434 $1,016,777
ROI 8.43% 8.89% 9.30% 9.66% 9.98%
Average 9.25%
Part 3
Growth rate in income 10%
Dividends $30,000
Cost $639,794 (Determined through Solver
under Tools command)
Annual amortization $15,000
1st  year PHC income $185,000
Percentage owned 40%
PHC reported income $74,000 $81,400 $89,540 $98,494 $108,343
Amortization 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000
Equity earnings $59,000 $66,400 $74,540 $83,494 $93,343
Beginning Balance $639,794 $686,794 $741,194 $803,734 $875,228
Equity earnings 59,000 66,400 74,540 83,494 93,343
Dividends (12,000) (12,000) (12,000) (12,000) (12,000)
Ending Balance $686,794 $741,194 $803,734 $875,228 $956,571
ROI 9.22% 9.67% 10.06% 10.39% 10.67%
Average 10.00%

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Excel Assignment No. 2 (more difficult)—see textbook Website for the Excel file solution

 

Intergen’s ownership percentage of Ryan 40%  Intercompany Transfer Price = $1,025,000
Cell F4
Ryan’s Income Statement Intergen’s Income Statement
Sales $900,000 Sales $1,025,000
Beginning inventory $ -0- Cost of goods sold $850,000
Purchases from Intergen $1,025,000 Gross profit $175,000
Inventory remaining 25% Equity in Ryan’s earnings $35,000*
Ending inventory $ 256,250 Net income $210,000
Cost of goods sold $768,750
Net income $131,250 *(52,500 – (40% × 256,250 ×
175,000/1,025,000))
Income to Intergen—40% $ 52,500
Use Goal Seek
Income to two equity partners—60% $78,750
or Solver under
Rate of Return Analysis the Tools
Investment Base Rate of Return command to
set Cell D20 to
Intergen $1,000,000 21.00%
zero by
Two outside equity partners $300,000 26.25%
changing Cell
Difference -5.25%
F4
Intergen’s ownership percentage of Ryan = 40% Intercompany Transfer Price = 1,050,000
Ryan’s Income Statement Intergen’s Income Statement
Sales $900,000 Sales $1,050,000
Beginning inventory $ -0- Cost of goods sold $ 850,000
Purchases from Intergen $1,050,000 Gross profit $ 200,000
Inventory 25% Equity in Ryan’s earnings $ 25,000*
Ending inventory $ 262,500 Net income $ 225,000
Cost of goods sold $787,500
Net income $112,500 *[45,000 – (40% ×262,500 ×200,000/
1,050,000)]
Income to Intergen—40% $ 45,000
Income to two equity partners—60% $67,500
Rate of Return Analysis
Investment Base Rate of Return
Intergen $1,000,000 22.50%
Two outside equity partners $300,000 22.50%
Difference 0.00%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Solution to Analysis Case

 

  1. Coca-Cola uses the equity method to account for its investment in CCE. (See note 2 of the consolidated financial statements.) Under the equity method, the investor recognizes its proportionate share of income or loss as reported by the investee and adjusts its investment account accordingly.

 

When the investor receives the dividends from the investee, the investor records a reduction in investment. A single investment account is reported. The actual asset base and related liabilities of the investee are not reported on the balance sheet of the investor.

 

  1. The accounting method is based on the investor’s ability to exercise significant influence over operating and financial policies of an investee even though the investor holds 50 percent or less of the voting stock. An ownership level of 20%–50% typically presumes significant influence.

 

  1. The Coca-Cola Company is CCE’s largest shareholder owning approximately 36% of CCE’s common stock. Three directors of CCE are executive officers of the Coca-Cola Company. Moreover, CCE conducts its business primarily under agreements with the Coca-Cola Company.

 

  1. Calculate the debt-to-equity ratios for The Coca-Cola Company and The Coca-Cola Enterprises respectively.

 

 

Coca-Cola Company: Total debt / shareholders’ equity

 

(Millions) 2004 15,392/15,935 = .97
2005 12,701/16,355 = .80

 

Coca-Cola Enterprises: Total debt /shareholders’ equity

 

(Millions) 2004 20,976/5,378 = 3.90
2005 19,714/5,643 = 3.49

 

  1. By employing the equity method, Coca-Cola

 

  • Keeps debt from the capital-intensive, low-margin bottling business off its books.

 

  • Improves its return on assets ratio by minimizing its asset base.

 

If Coca-Cola consolidated CCE, Coca-Cola would combine the assets and liabilities of CCE with its own. Consolidated income would be the same as Coca-Cola’s income including its equity in CCE’s earnings.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS CASE—IMPAIRMENT

 

  1. Paragraph 19 (h). of APB Opinion 18 states that

 

A loss in value of an investment which is other than a temporary decline should be recognized. Evidence of a loss in value might include, but would not necessarily be limited to, absence of an ability to recover the carrying amount of the investment or inability of the investee to sustain an earnings capacity which would justify the carrying amount of the investment. A current fair value of an investment that is less than its carrying amount may indicate a loss in value of the investment. However, a decline in the quoted market price below the carrying amount or the existence of operating losses is not necessarily indicative of a loss in value that is other than temporary. All are factors to be evaluated.

 

  1. Given the facts in the case, a very good case can be made that the decline in value appears permanent. The change in competitive environment, decline in revenues, drop in share value, and the lack of a responsive business plan all point to a loss that is other than temporary.

 

  1. No, according to SFAS 142, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets (paragraph B170), the equity method investment as a whole is reviewed for impairment, not the underlying assets. The Board concluded that because equity method goodwill is not separable from the related investment, that goodwill should not be separately tested for impairment.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Research Case Solution—Minority Rights

 

  1. Protective Rights

 

Minority rights (whether granted by contract or by law) that allow the minority shareholder to block the following corporate actions are considered protective rights and would not overcome the presumption of consolidation by the investor with a majority voting interest in its investee:

  • Amendments to articles of incorporation of the investee.

 

  • Pricing on transactions between the owner of a majority voting interest and the investee and related self-dealing transactions.

 

  • Liquidation of the investee or a decision to cause the investee to enter bankruptcy or other receivership.

 

  • Acquisitions and dispositions of assets greater than 20 percent of the fair value of the investee’s total assets (minority rights relating to acquisitions and dispositions of 20 percent or less do not necessarily lead to the conclusion that it is a substantive participating right).
  • Issuance or repurchase of equity interests.

 

The Task Force considered the above to be illustrative of some but not all of the protective rights that often are provided to the minority shareholder.

 

  1. Participating Rights

 

Minority rights often exist (whether granted by contract or by law) that allow the minority shareholder to participate in certain financial and operating decisions in the ordinary course of business. These participating rights are typically either protective (see part 1. above) or substantive. The rights must be substantive in order to overcome the presumption that a subsidiary must be consolidated.

 

  1. Substantive participating rights can overcome the presumption that all majority-owned investees should be consolidated. Minority rights that allow the minority shareholder effectively to participate in the following corporate actions should be considered substantive participating rights and can overcome the presumption that the investor with a majority voting interest should consolidate its investee:

 

  • Selecting, terminating, and setting the compensation of management responsible for implementing the investee’s policies and procedures.

 

  • Establishing operating and capital decisions of the investee, including budgets, in the ordinary course of business.

 

  1. The following can be found under EITF 96-16 Exhibit 96-16A

 

EXAMPLES OF HOW TO ASSESS INDIVIDUAL MINORITY RIGHTS


 

 

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UNDER THE CONSENSUS IN ISSUE 96-16

 

Existing facts and circumstances should be considered in assessing whether the rights of the minority shareholder relating to an investee’s incurring additional indebtedness are protective or participating rights. For example, if it is reasonably possible or probable that the investee will need to incur the level of borrowings that requires minority shareholder approval in its ordinary course of business, the rights of the minority shareholder would be viewed as substantive participating rights.

 

The rights of the minority shareholder relating to dividends or other distributions may be protective or participating and should be assessed in light of the available facts and circumstances. For example, rights to block customary or expected dividends or other distributions may be substantive participating rights, while rights to block extraordinary distributions would be protective rights.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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