The Developing Person Through the Life Span 9th Edition Test Bank


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The Developing Person Through the Life Span 9th Edition Test Bank



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The Developing Person Through the Life Span 9th Edition Test Bank



1. What does the science of human development seek to understand?1. What does the science of human development seek to understand?A) the meaning of lifeB) theories that have not been subjected to scientific testingC) the works of Freud, Piaget, and EriksonD) how and why people change over time

2. Dr. Furth wonders if a specific brain chemical can be suppressed if a patient is given a large dose of vitamin E. Dr. Furth has just demonstrated the _____ step in the scientific method.A) firstB) secondC) thirdD) fourth

3. Dr. Hernandez predicts that a certain drug will help patients with schizophrenia. Her prediction is called _____.A) a conclusionB) empirical evidenceC) a hypothesisD) a result

4. A researcher designed and conducted an experiment to learn if 350 mg of a certain drug would help patients with bipolar disorder. By designing and conducting this experiment the researcher was able to _____.A) draw conclusionsB) demonstrate proofC) test the hypothesisD) confirm the results

5. Dr. Henderson is curious to know more about how children develop over time. To gain an understanding of this subject not based on opinion or personal bias, Dr. Henderson should _____.A) use the scientific method to collect data and establish factsB) have the children undergo psychoanalysisC) talk with many children’s parentsD) read Dr. Spock’s book, Baby and Child Care

6. The first step in the scientific method involves _____.A) posing a questionB) conducting researchC) supporting or refuting a hypothesisD) developing a hypothesis

7. The second step in the scientific method involves _____.A) posing a questionB) conducting researchC) developing a hypothesisD) sharing the results

8. The third step in the scientific method involves _____.A) posing a questionB) conducting researchC) sharing the resultsD) developing a hypothesis

9. The fourth step in the scientific method involves _____.A) posing a questionB) conducting researchC) developing a hypothesisD) supporting or refuting a hypothesis

10. Empirical evidence is based on _____.A) theories and speculationB) observation, experience, or experimentC) inferences based on personal biasesD) opinions generated by several groups of people

11. After posing a question, a researcher using the scientific method _____.A) draws conclusionsB) runs an experimentC) selects a group of participantsD) develops a hypothesis

12. The final step in the five steps of the scientific method is to _____.A) test a hypothesisB) pose a questionC) conduct researchD) report the results

13. What is a researcher’s first step when designing a research study on children’s language acquisition?A) recruit children and their parents as participants in the studyB) develop a hypothesis on the way language is acquired in childrenC) pose a research question about language acquisitionD) draw conclusions on the way children acquire language

14. A hypothesis is a(n) _____.A) experimentB) prediction that can be testedC) conclusion drawn from researchD) replication of a scientific study

15. What is replication of a study?A) the repetition of a study using different participantsB) the repetition of a study using the same participantsC) designing a new study based on information from a previous studyD) designing a new study using new ideas and information

16. Dr. Kong does a study in which he finds that smoking is correlated to an increased risk of high blood pressure. He publishes his results. Then Dr. Meco does the same study using different participants in another city. Dr. Meco’s work is an example of _____.A) scientific controversyB) replicationC) ethicsD) observation

17. Dr. Seldor does a study in which she finds that alcohol consumption is correlated to an increased risk of diabetes. She publishes her results. Then Dr. Al-Jaher does the same study using different participants in another nation. Dr. Al-Jaher’s work is an example of _____.A) scientific controversyB) replicationC) empirical evidenceD) a hypothesis

18. Parents who spend a great deal of time and money trying to find the best school for their children believe in the importance of _____ as it relates to development.A) nurtureB) replicationC) natureD) classical conditioning

19. The term for all the environmental influences that affect development after conception is _____.A) proteinsB) nurtureC) natureD) amino acids

20. In the science of human development, “nature” refers to _____.A) the genes that people inheritB) environmental influencesC) patterns of developmentD) developmental differences

21. In the science of human development, “nurture” refers to _____.A) universal traitsB) biological traitsC) environmental influencesD) unique traits

22. Most developmental psychologists believe that development is the result of _____.A) nature and nurture acting separatelyB) primarily natureC) nature and nurture acting togetherD) primarily nurture

23. Dr. Towne believes that heredity is primarily responsible for personality traits. Dr. West believes that environmental influences are primarily responsible for personality traits. They are on different sides of the _____ debate.A) nature versus nurtureB) intelligent design versus evolutionC) genes versus developmentD) traits versus conditioning

24. Susie, who is 5 years old, is the tallest person in her kindergarten class. When her teacher asked her how she thought she got so tall she said proudly, “My mom and dad are tall and I eat good food!” Susie’s statement reflects that she understands that human development comes from _____.A) heredityB) the environmentC) learningD) environment and heredity combined

25. Which is an example of the influence of nature?A) having a mother who smoked during pregnancyB) having the gene for epilepsyC) eating a healthy dietD) living in a loud neighborhood

26. The life-span perspective takes into account development from _____.A) birth to deathB) childhood to middle ageC) the last decade of lifeD) conception to death

27. The last developmental stage of the life span is _____.A) infancyB) emerging adulthoodC) adulthoodD) late adulthood

28. With respect to the concept of multidirectional development, when change is rapid and dramatic, such as when a larva becomes a mosquito, it is an example of _____.A) continuityB) discontinuityC) geneticsD) nurture

29. The concept of multidirectional development suggests that when change is gradual, as when a tortoise grows larger over its 150-year lifespan, it is an example of _____.A) continuityB) discontinuityC) geneticsD) nurture

30. The human fetus develops fingers and toes between 28 and 54 days after conception but cannot develop fingers and toes before or after that time. This is an example of _____.A) a sensitive periodB) a critical periodC) discontinuityD) continuity

31. Which example best illustrates a critical period?A) a child learning to walkB) a child learning a second language before age 4C) a fetus developing fingers and toes between 28 and 54 days in uteroD) a child learning to ride a bike between 5 and 6 years of age

32. Which example best illustrates a sensitive period?A) a child being born blindB) an egg being fertilizedC) a fetus developing fingers and toesD) a child learning to speak a second language

33. Between 1957 and 1961, many pregnant women took thalidomide to alleviate morning sickness; this drug disrupted a(n) _____ period of prenatal development.A) sensitiveB) criticalC) earlyD) late

34. A woman in Honduras worked in a field treated with pesticides during her pregnancy. When her son was born, she was horrified to find that he had no limbs. Her pesticide exposure must have occurred during a(n) _____ period of prenatal development.A) criticalB) earlyC) lateD) sensitive

35. Bobby did not learn to read until he was an adolescent. When he did learn to read it was much harder for him to learn and it took him longer to learn to read. If Bobby had learned to read during the early childhood years into the middle childhood years he would have had an easier time learning to read. Bobby had a hard time learning to read because he did not learn to do so during the _____ period.A) criticalB) earlyC) lateD) sensitive

36. Which term is NOT associated with Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological-systems approach?A) mastosystemsB) microsystemsC) exosystemsD) macrosystems

37. In Bronfenbrenner’s ecological-systems approach, the _____ refers to the interactions among systems.A) macrosystemB) exosystemC) microsystemD) mesosystem

38. What term did Bronfenbrenner use to describe the impact of the specific time in history on a person’s development?A) macrosystemB) exosystemC) microsystemD) chronosystem

39. Dorothy was born during the Great Depression. Within the context of the ecological-systems approach, knowing this fact allows one to know about her _____.A) chronosystem.B) exosystem.C) microsystem.D) macrosystem.

40. Dwayne was born to a single mother living in Chicago. Within the context of the ecological-systems approach, knowing this fact allows one to know something about his _____.A) chronosystemB) exosystemC) microsystemD) macrosystem

41. Dr. Kilbey is studying the impact of exosystems on human development. Which of these would she be MOST interested in examining?A) cultural values and economic processesB) family and peer groupsC) medical centers and religious institutionsD) the development of the skeletal structure in children

42. The ecological-systems approach was proposed by _____.A) MaslowB) Baltes and BaltesC) BronfenbrennerD) Skinner

43. In Bronfenbrenner’s ecological-systems model, a hospital in the community is an example of which system?A) the ecosystemB) the microsystemC) the health-care systemD) the exosystem

44. In Bronfenbrenner’s ecological-systems model, family and peers are part of a person’s _____.A) microsystemB) exosystemC) macrosystemD) social system

45. A person’s macrosystem includes _____.A) political processesB) the peer groupC) school and churchD) historical setting

46. Within Bronfenbrenner’s ecological-systems approach, he called the historical context that affects other systems the _____.A) ecosystemB) chronosystemC) mesosystemD) macrosystem

47. Bettie belongs to one cohort; Zahara belongs to another. The only DEFINITE difference between these two women is _____.A) membership in community groupsB) socioeconomic statusC) ageD) ethnic or racial group

48. High school classmates are part of the same _____.A) social constructionB) networkC) socioeconomic statusD) cohort

49. The people in which group are DEFINITELY members of the same cohort?A) women who are pilotsB) men with learning disabilitiesC) citizens of the United StatesD) current middle school students

50. Socioeconomic status refers to an individual’s _____.A) cultureB) ethnicityC) social classD) race

51. An individual’s socioeconomic status includes, among other things, his or her _____.A) ethnicityB) education levelC) political beliefsD) religion

52. An individual’s socioeconomic status includes, among other things, his or her _____.A) ethnicityB) political beliefsC) neighborhoodD) religion

53. An individual’s socioeconomic status includes, among other things, his or her _____.A) occupationB) political beliefsC) raceD) religion

54. Jameel has a college degree, lives in a nice neighborhood, and earns more than $50,000 a year. This information defines his _____.A) economic potentialB) socioeconomic statusC) cohortD) microsystem

55. A system of shared beliefs, conventions, norms, behaviors, expectations, and symbolic representations is the definition of _____.A) a cohortB) cultureC) natureD) nurture

56. The general term for a concept that is created by society is _____.A) cultureB) a cohortC) a social constructionD) SES

57. The Johnson family always eats dinner together as they really value family time. The Smith family, however, never eats dinner together as they all value their independence. The fact that the families have different values is due to _____. This has affected how the Johnson and Smith families act.A) statusB) educationC) social constructionD) physical characteristics

58. One historical example of the “different-equals-deficit error” is _____.A) men perceiving women as intellectually inferiorB) European immigrants crossing the ocean to settle in AmericaC) how people’s IQ scores have been steadily rising for more than 100 yearsD) women taking factory jobs during World War II

59. An example of the “difference-equals-deficit” is _____.A) assuming that children who are hearing impaired cannot communicate as well as children who can hearB) failing to compare typical and atypical behaviorC) ignoring inconsistencies in a child’s language developmentD) the identification of flaws within the application of the scientific method

60. Which developmentalist was the first to describe the interaction between culture and education?A) VygotskyB) PiagetC) BronfenbrennerD) Skinner

61. People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who usually share the same language and religion are called a(n) _____.A) raceB) ethnic groupC) SES groupD) exosystem

62. According to the text, race is _____.A) part of the microsystemB) a social constructionC) defined by heritageD) multidirectional

63. Some social scientists believe that _____ terms exaggerate minor differences between people.A) colorB) diversityC) genetic analysisD) culture

64. Social scientists are convinced, based on genetic analysis, that race is a(n) _____.A) biological differenceB) cultureC) social constructionD) ethnicity

65. What is epigenetics?A) the study of defective human genesB) the study of how the environment affects which genes are expressedC) a theory that states that nature matters more than nurtureD) a theory that explains how motivation can change one’s biology

66. Genes alone do not determine development, but rather environmental forces also shape development, which has led to the understanding that many human characteristics are _____.A) plasticB) epigeneticC) staticD) diverse

67. All of the following are categories that are associated with potential causes of depression EXCEPT for _____.A) genesB) neurologyC) developmentD) ethnicity

68. Which of the following has NOT been linked to depression?A) low exposure to daylightB) a life crisisC) high levels of serotoninD) poverty

69. Plasticity refers to the _____.A) fact that many academic fields contribute data to the science of developmentB) universals and specifics of human development in many cultural settingsC) vast array of contexts in which development occursD) potential for human traits to be modeled during development but also to remain durable

70. What is plasticity?A) a time in development when it is optimum to develop certain traits or abilitiesB) the amount of flexibility a human possesses at birthC) the idea that human traits may change or stay the same over timeD) the idea that human traits are mostly inborn

71. The idea that human development is an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the body, mind, and every aspect of the environment is known as the _____.A) dynamic-systems approachB) theory of evolutionC) concept of universalityD) domino effect

72. Which of these is the BEST example of plasticity?A) a man who consistently drives his car too fastB) a teenager who spends a summer in Chile and learns to speak SpanishC) a woman who leaves her job to stay home with her newbornD) a person who is in a coma

73. Differential sensitivity means that certain people have genes that _____.A) make them more vulnerable to particular experiencesB) contribute similarly to a specific developmental outcomeC) do not impact development within the context of particular experiencesD) have an unknown impact on individuals

74. If a researcher watches 1-week-old babies and records how many times they open and close their eyes while lying in their cribs, he is most likely using _____.A) the case-study methodB) a controlled experimentC) cross-sectional researchD) scientific observation

75. Scientific observation allows for the _____.A) study of individuals’ behaviors in a systematic and objective mannerB) determination of cause-and-effect relationshipsC) precise control of the environment so that a cause-and-effect relationship can be assessedD) systematic manipulation of variables

76. Which statement about scientific observation is true?A) It requires a large number of participants.B) It requires specialized equipment such as video recorders.C) It involves recording behavior systematically and objectively.D) It must take place in a lab setting.

77. Experiments allow researchers to _____.A) study the natural environmentB) study the complexity of an individualC) use the scientific method in a cost-effective wayD) determine a cause-and-effect relationship

78. When a researcher wants to determine the cause of a particular behavior, the appropriate research method to use is a(n) _____.A) case studyB) scientific observationC) experimentD) survey

79. What is a dependent variable?A) It is the measured variable that may change depending on manipulation of an independent variable.B) It is any unmeasured variable that is uncontrolled within the context of the experiment.C) It is the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher.D) It is an external variable that cannot be controlled by the researcher.

80. What is an independent variable?A) It is the measured variable that may change depending upon manipulation of an independent variable.B) It is any unmeasured variable that is uncontrolled within the context of the experiment.C) It is the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher.D) It is an external variable that cannot be controlled by the researcher.

81. What is the only research method that can establish a cause-and-effect relationship?A) a case studyB) a surveyC) an experimentD) scientific observation

82. An example of a dependent variable in an experiment might be _____.A) genderB) blood typeC) eye colorD) level of depression

83. In an experiment, the group of participants who receive the imposed treatment or special condition is referred to as the _____ group.A) independentB) dependentC) experimentalD) comparison

84. To determine if vitamin D consumption causes the progress of multiple sclerosis to slow, a researcher would most likely use _____.A) a laboratory experimentB) a surveyC) naturalistic observationD) the case-study method

85. Dr. Devalle is conducting interviews, collecting background information, and running a series of tests on a single individual over several years. She is conducting a(n) _____.A) surveyB) experimentC) case studyD) observation

86. _____ is a quick way to study the development of a large group of people.A) A case studyB) Survey researchC) A cohort-sequential studyD) Longitudinal research

87. Dr. Bloom wanted to learn if ice cream preferences were different at different stages of development. For her study, she conducted a one-time assessment in which she asked a group of 5-year-olds, a group of 15-year-olds, and a group of 30-year-olds to identify their ice cream preferences. Dr. Bloom conducted a _____.A) case studyB) cross-sectional studyC) longitudinal studyD) cross-sequential study

88. What is NOT a problem with longitudinal research?A) the aging of the participantsB) losing participants over timeC) changing historical contextD) participants becoming aware of the goals of the study and changing their behaviors or answers

89. Which type of research design combines the cross-sectional design with the longitudinal research design?A) cross-sequentialB) cross-sectionalC) meta-sequentialD) longitudinal

90. A correlation does not indicate that one variable causes the other to occur; rather, it indicates that there is a _____ between the two variables.A) proofB) validityC) reliabilityD) relationship

91. A correlation is considered to be negative if _____.A) both variables decreaseB) both variables increaseC) one variable increases while the other variable decreasesD) change in one variable is unrelated to change in the other variable

92. A correlation is considered to be zero if _____.A) one variable increases while the other decreasesB) both variables decreaseC) both variables increaseD) there is no connection between the variables

93. The more Hank eats, the less hungry he feels. The correlation that exists between Hank’s food intake and his hunger is _____.A) positiveB) negativeC) zeroD) causal

94. If a researcher finds a positive correlation between school grades and school attendance, one can conclude that _____.A) high attendance and high grades occur togetherB) high attendance causes high gradesC) high attendance rarely means high gradesD) high grades cause high attendance

95. If a researcher finds that there is a correlation between secondhand smoke and children’s asthma, he knows for SURE that _____.A) secondhand smoke causes children’s asthmaB) secondhand smoke does not cause children’s asthmaC) children exposed to smoke in utero often get asthmaD) asthma and secondhand smoke have some connection

96. IRB stands for _____.A) Institutional Review BoardB) International Research BoardC) Internal Review BoardD) Intelligence Research Board

97. Participants in a research study must understand and agree to the research procedures and also be made aware of any potential risks associated with the research participation. This process is known as _____.A) holding harmlessB) informed consentC) release of liabilityD) rite of research

98. When doing research with anyone under the age of 18, which of the following must be obtained?A) the children’s birth recordsB) the names of the children’s biological parents if the children are adoptedC) consent from the parents and children (if children are able to consent)D) the names of the children’s peers

99. An example of a behavior by a researcher that would be considered unethical is _____.A) stopping the study if a participant is suspected of being harmedB) falsifying the data to support the hypothesisC) obtaining informed consent before a participant is able to participate in the studyD) maintaining participant confidentiality

100. When children are involved in research participation, the ethical standard is for _____.A) children to consent to the research participation (when they are able to consent)B) the results to be shared with the parentsC) the study to be published if the children agree to the study being publishedD) the study to be replicated before being published

101. From an ethical stance, researchers should choose topics of study that _____.A) may be researched quicklyB) may be researched inexpensivelyC) can help all people live better livesD) are politically correct

Answer Key
1. D2. A3. C4. C5. A6. A7. C8. B9. D10. B11. D12. D13. C14. B15. A16. B17. B18. A19. B20. A21. C22. C23. A24. D25. B26. D27. D28. B29. A30. B31. C32. D33. B34. A35. D36. A37. D38. D39. A40. C41. C42. C43. D44. A45. A46. B47. C48. D49. D50. C51. B52. C53. A54. B55. B56. C57. C58. A59. A60. A61. B62. B63. A64. C65. B66. B67. D68. C69. D70. C71. A72. B73. A74. D75. A76. C77. D78. C79. A80. C81. C82. D83. C84. A85. C86. B87. B88. A89. A90. D91. C92. D93. B94. A95. D96. A97. B98. C99. B100. A101. C