Test Bank For Experiencing the Lifespan 3rd Edition


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Test Bank For Experiencing the Lifespan 3rd Edition


Sample Chapter Below:


1. Normative life events are the same in all cultures.
A) True
B) False



2. The maximum lifespan is a person’s fifty-fifty likelihood of living to a particular age.
A) True
B) False



3. The young-old are in their fifties and sixties and the old-old are age 70 and above.
A) True
B) False



4. In the United States (and around the world), there is no relationship between life expectancy and a person’s income.
A) True
B) False



5. Compared to people in Asian countries, overall U.S. residents are likely to have a more individualistic orientation.
A) True
B) False



6. Attitudes and values within each major ethnic group in the United States are very similar.
A) True
B) False



7. The differences in values and attitudes between men and women are all biological in origin.
A) True
B) False



8. According to traditional behaviorists, the way to extinguish behavior is to stop reinforcing it.
A) True
B) False



9. According to Bandura, modeling refers to reinforcing another person’s behavior.
A) True
B) False



10. Bowlby’s attachment theory emphasizes the importance of the parent/child relationship in early childhood.
A) True
B) False



11. Bowlby embraced the importance of nurture, but rejected the importance of nature.
A) True
B) False



12. Evolutionary psychologists emphasize the importance of reinforcements in determining behavior.
A) True
B) False



13. Behavioral geneticists conduct research on hereditary influences on behaviors and attitudes.
A) True
B) False



14. Freud believed that self-awareness is the key to mental health.
A) True
B) False



15. Piaget was interested in charting how the amount children know gradually increases.
A) True
B) False



16. Developmental systems theorists stress the fact that many different forces shape behavior.
A) True
B) False



17. Developmentalists conduct research to find out the scientific “truth.”
A) True
B) False



18. Correlational studies can determine cause and effect relationships.
A) True
B) False



19. Cross-sectional studies compare different age groups at the same time.
A) True
B) False



20. Longitudinal studies are inexpensive and easy to carry out.
A) True
B) False



21. Qualitative studies include statistical analyses.
A) True
B) False




Answer Key


1. B
2. B
3. B
4. B
5. A
6. B
7. B
8. A
9. B
10. A
11. B
12. B
13. A
14. A
15. B
16. A
17. A
18. B
19. A
20. B
21. B

Use the following to answer questions 1-10:


Using the different studies involving sugar consumption described in the following question (see A, B, C, or D), match the correct study to each question.

A. I relate the amount of sugar children eat at breakfast to their aggression by going to a playground and counting the frequency of hitting on selected days.
B. I randomly assign this class into two groups. Tell one group to eat a healthy diet, and another to eat candy bars and then compare your grades on this test.
C. I test the blood glucose levels of 20 year olds and then retest them again at age 30, 45, and 65.
D. I survey people about their sugar intake and give my scale to adults of different ages.




1. Which study used an experimental design?



2. Which is the cross-sectional study?



3. Which research employed naturalistic observation?



4. Which is the correlational study?



5. Which study can prove that eating a lot of sugar “causes” problems—but may be unethical?



6. In which study are dropouts going to be a huge problem?



7. Which study can tell you if young people who eat a lot of sugar have health problems later on?



8. Which study can tell you about cohort differences in sugar intake, but not necessarily about how the tendency to eat a sugary diet changes as people age?



9. Which is the longitudinal study?



10. Which research involved a self-report strategy?




Answer Key


1. B
2. D
3. A
4. A
5. B
6. C
7. C
8. D
9. D
10. D
1. Gerontologists study:
A) evolution.
B) genes.
C) diseases of the ancient world.
D) aging.



2. A developmental scientist, would MOST likely study:
A) crimes committed by the mentally ill.
B) cross-cultural ideas about the right age to toilet train children.
C) cures for schizophrenia.
D) causes of the American revolution.




1. Core disciplines of lifespan development include ________ and ________.



2. The biological limit of human life, called the ________, is about ________ years.



3. ________ is the term referring to one’s income and level of education.



4. Harmonious family and group relationships are all important in ________. Independence and achievement are highly valued in ________.



5. The name in developmental science for inborn biological forces is ________.



6. ________ theories focus on specific changes that occur at particular ages.



7. In traditional operant behaviorist terminology, we learn ________.



8. A person who has high ________ feelings will be more likely to accept a challenging task than will someone who anticipates failure.



9. According to Bowlby, children’s early experiences with ________ shape their ability to love.



10. Evolutionary psychologists emphasize the ________ bases of human behavior.



11. The field that explores the biological and environment contribution to human differences is called ________.



12. For Erikson, each life stage involves a particular developmental challenge, or ________.



13. A researcher who looks at many different influences on behavior advocates the ________ perspective.



14. Scientists seek to find the “truth” through ________.



15. The disadvantage of correlational studies is that they do not allow us to determine ________.



16. In a(n) ________, the researcher assigns groups to different treatments and looks at the results.



17. Cross-sectional studies tell researchers about differences between or among ________.



18. The volunteers who remain in a longitudinal study for years tend to be a(n) ________ group, much better than average.



19. Interview studies that don’t use “numbers” or statistics are called ________.




Answer Key


1. child development; adult development
2. maximum lifespan; 105
3. Socioeconomic status
4. collectivist cultures; individualistic societies
5. nature
6. Stage
7. reinforcement
8. efficacy
9. caregivers
10. biological or inborn
11. behavioral genetics
12. psychosocial task
13. developmental systems
14. research
15. what causes what
16. experiment
17. cohorts
18. elite
19. qualitative research



3. What area of the lifespan did scientists first study?
A) child development
B) adult development
C) gerontology
D) prenatal development



4. If you were studying development a century ago, you would focus on which life stage?
A) child development
B) adult development
C) gerontology
D) prenatal development



5. As a developmentalist, you might study all of these topics EXCEPT:
A) when we typically reach certain milestones like walking or puberty.
B) what drugs work best for heart disease or schizophrenia.
C) what happens after retirement or divorce.
D) how people’s personalities change over time.



6. Which is NOT a normative transition?
A) Mary begins kindergarten at age 5.
B) Sara has a child when she is in her twenties.
C) Josephine has a terrible car accident at age 18.
D) Manuel retires at age 65.



7. Pick the normative transition.
A) going to school
B) divorcing
C) sleeping in bed with a child
D) experiencing a recession



8. Which person is referring to his cohort?
A) “We live in the same area of the country.”
B) “We play tennis together every week.”
C) “We were born around the same time.”
D) “We are of the same ethnic group.”



9. A cohort refers to a:
A) group of friends.
B) group of people who were born around the same time.
C) family group.
D) group of people who live in the same neighborhood.



10. When Mellissa tells you she is a “millenial” she is referring to:
A) her society.
B) her cohort.
C) her income.
D) being in the top 1 percent.



11. Millential, Generation X, Baby Boomer. All these terms refer to our:
A) social class.
B) cohort.
C) society.
D) group of friend.



12. The MAIN quality that differentiates the baby boom cohort is its:
A) size.
B) narcissism.
C) intelligence.
D) social status.



13. Pick the person who is NOT a baby boomer.
A) Carlos, who was in college during the late l960s
B) Callista, who is about to turn 65
C) Cami, who is 40
D) Corrine, who became a grandma last year



14. Pick the person who is definitely a baby boomer.
A) Callista, who is about to turn 65
B) Cami, who is in her late seventies
C) Corrine, who became a grandma last year
D) Carlos, who just got his Ph.D.



15. Pick the person who is definitely NOT a baby boomer.
A) Callista, who is about to turn 65
B) Cami, who is in her late eighties
C) Corrine, who became a grandma last year
D) Carlos, who just got his Ph.D.



16. All are true of the baby boomers EXCEPT they:
A) were teenagers during the late l960s.
B) are entering their young-old years.
C) are an incredibly large cohort.
D) have similar outlooks, philosophies, and world views.



17. All are true of the baby boom cohort EXCEPT they:
A) are now in the aging phase of life (that is, in their fifties and sixties).
B) are now old-old.
C) are an extremely large group.
D) reached their teens during the 1960s.



18. Which person is NOT a member of the baby boom cohort?
A) David, who was born in l946, after his dad returned from World War II
B) Margaret, who entered college at age l8, during the late 1960s
C) Lynnette, who was born during the Great Depression
D) Frank, who retired in 2013 at age 63



19. If a woman tells you she is a baby boomer, she:
A) grew up during World War II.
B) grew up during the l980s.
C) reached her teens during the l960s or l970s.
D) reached her teens in the l980s.



20. Give a main reason why childhood has gotten longer over the centuries.
A) schooling—need for more education
B) economic pressures—need for kids to stay at home
C) biology—children mature physically at older ages
D) family changes—more single-parent moms



21. José is explaining some historical facts about childhood. He should say:
A) “In previous centuries, we cared more about nurturing children than we do today.”
B) “In previous centuries, we cared more about education than we do today.”
C) “In previous centuries, people were defined as adults right after college.”
D) “In previous centuries, activities we would see as child abuse were routine.”



22. Which force was NOT influential in producing our modern “caring” view of childhood?
A) religious leaders’ sermons
B) the writings of philosophers, such as Locke and Rousseau, who felt childhood was a special period
C) medical advances, which dramatically reduced infant mortality
D) universal education and the need for children to go to school



23. In summarizing the “changing conceptions of childhood” section, you can make all of these points EXCEPT:
A) Childhood has gotten “longer” over the past centuries.
B) We now treat children better than “in the good old days.”
C) Rates of child abuse have been rising.
D) A century ago, no defined life stage called adolescence existed.



24. All are true of emerging adulthood EXCEPT it:
A) refers to the time from high school graduation age 18 through the late 20s.
B) is the time when we are exploring our place in the adult world.
C) was promoted by the fact we now live a long time.
D) is an unhappy life stage.



25. “If I am in my twenties, my life stage is ________. If I am in my sixties, I am ________.” (Pick the correct life-stage terms.)
A) emerging adulthood; young-old
B) early adulthood; a new senior citizen
C) first adulthood; in early old age
D) middle adulthood; a senior



26. The age you have a fifty-fifty chance of surviving to is your:
A) lifespan.
B) average life expectancy.
C) maximum life span.
D) longevity.



27. All are true of the twentieth century life-expectancy revolution EXCEPT it:
A) was caused by dramatic medical advances in curing infectious disease.
B) occurred in the first half of the twentieth century.
C) allowed us to live beyond the maximum lifespan.
D) allowed most of us to live to “the aging phase of life.”



28. Why are deaths from heart disease much more common today than a century ago?
A) We are living much longer.
B) We are not taking as good care of our bodies.
C) We are working harder.
D) We are under more stress.



29. Sam is describing some effects of the twentieth century life-expectancy revolution. Pick the statement he should NOT make.
A) “People now often reach ‘full’ adulthood at an older age.”
B) “People now often live beyond the maximum lifespan.”
C) “People now more often survive to the old-old years.”
D) “People now more often die of heart disease and cancer.”



30. Clara is discussing characteristics of the young-old. Pick the statement she should NOT make.
A) “They are in their sixties and seventies.”
B) “They are often healthy.”
C) “They may say they look and feel middle aged.”
D) “They are in their late fifties.”



31. Pick the MAIN DIFFERENCE between the young old and the old-old.
A) health (illness and disability)
B) wisdom
C) discrimination
D) living in the North vs. the South



32. Phillipe is contrasting the young-old with the old-old. Pick the statement he should NOT make.
A) “The young-old are more likely to be healthy.”
B) “The young-old are in their fifites.”
C) “The young-old are more likely to see themselves as middle aged.”
D) “The young-old are more likely to be active.”



33. Clarisa tells you, “My grandma is old-old.” What should you be thinking?
A) This woman is in her eighties or beyond.
B) This woman is more likely to be frail.
C) This woman is more likely to live in a nursing home.
D) All of the answers are correct.



34. All are adult lifestyle changes that have occurred since the l960s EXCEPT:
A) many more divorced couples and single parents.
B) men doing much more housework and childcare.
C) women totally moving into the workforce.
D) more rigid ideas of how we should behave as adults.



35. Sum up the main consequence of the lifestyle revolution of the 1960s.
A) more freedom to live our lives the way we want
B) more happiness
C) more unhappiness
D) more obesity



36. Joe is discussing the causes of the Great Recession of 2008. He can make all of the following comments EXCEPT:
A) “It began with a bursting of a housing bubble—and a dramatic decline in real estate prices.”
B) “It caused strapped consumers to spend less.”
C) “It produced widespread layoffs.”
D) “Its effects are now confined to the United States.”



37. José is discussing some fallout from the Great Recession of 2008. He should make all of these comments EXCEPT:
A) “It is causing a huge increase in divorce.”
B) “It is causing people to lose faith in the American dream—that hard work leads to success.”
C) “It is causing people to rethink standard ideas like “You must leave home to go to college.”
D) “It is leading to people retiring at older ages.”



38. Income inequality refers to:
A) the widening gap between the very rich (1 percent) and the rest of the population.
B) the fact that we are losing our middle class and becoming a nation of very rich and poor.
C) the fact that recent economic gains all went to the upper 10 (or 1 percent of the population).
D) All of the answers are correct.



39. If you want to know someone’s socioeconomic status, you would ask:
A) “What is your education level?”
B) “What is your medical history?”
C) “What is your income?”
D) “What is your education level?” and “What is your income?”



40. All of the following comments relate to a U.S. person’s socioeconomic status, EXCEPT:
A) “He is earning over $100,000 year.”
B) “She is living under the poverty line.”
C) “He has a shorter life expectancy; because he has no health insurance.”
D) “She just turned 65.”



41. Pick the developed nation.
A) Zaire
B) Pakistan
C) Indonesia
D) Japan



42. “This country has a low median income and life-expectancy.” I am describing a(n):
A) primitive society.
B) developing nation.
C) collectivist society.
D) individualistic society.



43. Mariah says, “Obedience to family comes first.” Mark tells you, “Honesty and independence are my main values in life.” Mariah’s cultural worldview is ________, while Mark’s is more ________.
A) coercive; narcissistic
B) caring; independent
C) collectivist; individualistic
D) individualistic; collectivist



44. In collectivist cultures, people:
A) value their own needs over the good of the community.
B) tend to live in intergenerational extended families.
C) care greatly about personal success.
D) want to be rich.



45. In individualistic cultures, people value:
A) arranged marriages.
B) independence.
C) obedience.
D) suppressing feelings.



46. Who has MOST individualistic cultural worldview?
A) José, who puts his college plans on hold, because his grandparents are ill and he feels “family comes first.”
B) Kim, who is excitedly preparing for her wedding to Jules, the man her parents picked to be her husband.
C) Marta, who wants to go to school to become a doctor, but will easily give up this plan to preserve family harmony, if her father and brothers object.
D) Thomas, who wants to raise his daughters to be self-sufficient and to openly speak their mind.



47. Which collectivist nation is becoming more individualistic and affluent?
A) the United States
B) Haiti
C) England
D) China



48. Pick the nation that does NOT have a collectivist worldview.
A) the United States
B) India
C) China
D) Bangladesh



49. If you met an emerging adult from a collectivist culture, she might:
A) be more reticent about sharing her feelings.
B) not want to leave home to go to college.
C) place enormous value on subordinating her needs to the group.
D) All of the answers are correct.



50. Maya has a collectivist worldview. And Marrisa has an individualistic worldview. You might predict:
A) Maya values obedience more than Marrisa.
B) Marissa values independence more than Maya.
C) Marrisa values self-assertion more than Maya.
D) Maya is more unhappy than Marrisa.



51. Which of these people is likely to live the longest?
A) Donald, a farmer in the American Midwest
B) Raquel, who works in a shoe factory in the Philippines
C) Abdul, who runs a shop in Morocco
D) Sarah, a third-grade teacher, in Canada



52. Pick the largest U.S. minority group:
A) Asian Americans
B) Latinos
C) Blacks
D) Native Americans



53. If you have a Latino friend, you can assume:
A) she is almost certainly living in poverty.
B) she has the same general world view if she immigrated from Cuba or Brazil.
C) not much—as a broad label, it doesn’t tell us about a person’s ideas or life.
D) she feels “not quite” American.



54. Imagine you time traveled to the United States in the mid-twenty-first century. You would probably see all of the following EXCEPT:
A) many more Latino Americans.
B) many more “mixed race” couples.
C) more Asian Americans.
D) more African Americans.



55. Each major ethnic minority group in the United States is:
A) very similar, having the same values and attitudes.
B) composed of people from a variety of countries, with different attitudes and worldviews.
C) becoming more isolated.
D) growing dramatically as a fraction of the U.S. population.



56. Imagine you are living 30 years from now, in 2040, in the United States. You will see all of the following changes in the population EXCEPT:
A) minorities may outnumber whites.
B) more old-old people.
C) more biracial and multiracial adults and children.
D) African Americans may outnumber whites.



57. The basic marker that shapes life that is MOST enduring and the LEAST likely to change is our:
A) cultural worldview.
B) gender.
C) cohort.
D) label as a single ethnic group.



58. The statement, “Women are better than men at doing housework” is an example of a:
A) scientific finding.
B) stereotype.
C) marketing strategy used by industry.
D) universal trait.



59. Gender differences in attitudes and lifestyles:
A) are mainly biological.
B) are mainly shaped by society.
C) are both shaped by biology and society.
D) basically stay the same over time.



60. Which statement about the lifespan is most TRUE?
A) Most people’s lives are the same, no matter where in the world they live.
B) Throughout history, people’s day-to-day lives have not changed very much.
C) Most ideas about proper behavior are universal.
D) Our lifespan varies dramatically depending on our cohort, our socioeconomic status, our cultural background, and our gender.



61. Theories in developmental science:
A) help us understand and predict why people act the way they do.
B) tell us about our genes.
C) are only useful in isolated cases.
D) involve conducting statistical tests.



62. Dr. Kleine believes in a nature (not nurture) explanation of development. Which statement would he be MOST likely to make?
A) “Our personality depends on how we are treated during infancy.”
B) “Gender differences in friendship styles are programmed at birth.”
C) “Good teachers can raise IQ scores in children from impoverished homes.”
D) “With effort we can be anything we want in life.”



63. Pick the statement that a traditional behaviorist would make.
A) “I can explain human behavior by looking at its reinforcers (or reinforcement).”
B) “It’s very important to understand people’s feelings and inner motivations.”
C) “Each person perceives reality differently.”
D) “Human behavior is very complicated.”



64. According to B. F. Skinner, behaviors that are ________ will be learned.
A) stopped
B) reinforced
C) observed
D) beneficial



65. JoJo, at the mall, sees a big lollipop, and asks Daddy to get it. When daddy says “no,” JoJo falls to the floor, kicking and screaming. After ignoring JoJo’s tantrum for a few minutes, Daddy gives in and buys the lollipop. JoJo immediately becomes quiet. If you were a traditional behaviorist observing this scene, you would make all of the following comments EXCEPT:
A) “JoJo has learned ‘If I scream long enough, I will be reinforced.’”
B) “If Daddy had ignored JoJo’s tantrum, the screaming would extinguish.”
C) “JoJo is basically a bad girl.”
D) “Daddy has put JoJo on a variable reinforcement schedule, which should cause huge      problems the next time they visit the mall!”



66. Pick the variable reinforcement schedule.
A) Sometimes I get A’s when I study and sometimes I don’t. So if I happen not to get an A on this test, I know I have to keep studying and eventually I will succeed.
B) If I don’t get an A on this text, I will just give up.
C) If I get an A on this test, this means I’m a genius.
D) I love teachers who give mainly A’s!



67. Pick the example of operant conditioning.
A) when Tiffany cries the family rushes over and gives her attention, so she has learned to cry a lot
B) you give your husband a big kiss whenever he does yard work, so now he mows the grass every few days
C) after your car accident, you refuse to drive
D) All of these are examples.



68. If a traditional behaviorist notices that a nursing home resident’s memory has seriously declined, she would say:
A) “The resident is not being reinforced for remembering anything.”
B) “The resident has developed Alzheimer’s disease.”
C) “The resident is being overmedicated.”
D) “The resident is lonely and depressed.”



69. A traditional behaviorist is giving childrearing advice. She would say all of the following EXCEPT:
A) “Pay attention to good behaviors.”
B) “Be consistent. Never reward the child when she is acting inappropriately.”
C) “Don’t pay attention to your child when she is acting up.”
D) “Above all give your child lots of love.”



70. A couple comes to your office for therapy. As a traditional behaviorist you would focus on:
A) increasing the number of reinforcing comments the spouses make to each other.
B) understanding the inner motivations from childhood that are keeping this couple from relating to each other in a positive way.
C) increasing efficacy feelings.
D) providing medications.



71. A friend asks what a behaviorist might advise about how to raise her son. Pick the tip she would NOT give.
A) Ignore bad behavior (or don’t reinforce it) by paying attention to your child.
B) Pay attention when your child does something positive and reinforce him for good behavior.
C) If you want your child to learn to persist at an activity, reinforce him every time he performs that action.
D) To discipline your child, be consistent. Never give in because he whines!



72. Link statements 1, 2, and 3 to the correct behavioral term.1. “Sometimes when I study, I get A’s and sometimes I don’t. So I keep plugging along.”

2. “Even though I failed this test, I know I’m a terrific student. So I keep studying because I have faith in myself.”

3. “I watched my brother studying—that’s how I learned to study hard.”

A) 1 = high self-efficacy; 2 = modeling; 3 = variable reinforcement schedule
B) 1 = variable reinforcement schedule; 2 = high self-efficacy; 3 = modeling
C) 1 = reinforcement; 2 = variable schedule; 3 = modeling
D) 1 = variable reinforcement schedule; 2 = modeling; 3 = high self-efficacy



73. Dr. Academic is a cognitive behaviorist. Which statement(s) would he make?
A) “I believe we can predict behavior by looking at a person’s feelings of competence.”
B) “I believe that we learn by watching and imitating people.”
C) “I believe that we learn only when personally rewarded for our actions.”
D) “I believe we can predict behavior by looking at a person’s feelings of competence.” and “I believe that we learn by watching and imitating people.”



74. Jorge is an 8-year-old boy. According to social learning theory/cognitive behaviorism, which person would he be MOST likely to model?
A) Marisa, a 4-year-old girl who lives down the street
B) Uncle Pedro, who is incredibly kind and involved with Jorge
C) Mr. Taylor, the principal at the high school in town
D) Spot, Jorge’s dog



75. Phyllis’s son, who is worried about his 72-year-old mom, suggests that she attend activities at the local senior center. Phyllis resists this idea, saying that she is too old to meet new people. How might a cognitive behaviorist interpret Phyllis’s reluctance?
A) Phyllis is seriously depressed, and ought to see a counselor.
B) Phyllis needs to come to terms emotionally with her husband’s death.
C) Phyllis may have low efficacy feelings with regard to making new friends.
D) Phyllis is right. At her age, it’s difficult to make new friends.



76. Which person is showing high self-efficacy?
A) Annie, who is very smart, enrolls in a challenging Italian course.
B) Beth turns down a chance to audition for a starring role in a local play.
C) David tells you “I have a math phobia.”
D) Chaz wants to socialize with people he knows well, rather than joining new groups.



77. Pick the correct examples of: (1) modeling and (2) self-efficacy, with regard to studying:
A) (1) “My best friend studies and makes good grades, so I am inspired to study.” (2) “I know I can do well academically, so I study a good deal.”
B) (1) “I know I can do well academically, so I study a good deal.” (2) “My best friend studies and makes good grades, so I am inspired to study.”
C) (1) “The last test I studied for I got an A, so I’ll study for this one too.” (2) “I’m in the habit of studying for every test.”
D) (1) “I HATE studying.”(2) “I LOVE studying.”



78. Clarrisa gets a C on her first test in this class and decides to work very hard because she knows she can succeed. According to cognitive behaviorists, Clarrisa has:
A) high self-efficacy.
B) good ego strength.
C) good motivation.
D) high self-esteem.



79. Pick the statement a cognitive behaviorist would make.
A) “You can succeed if you believe in your abilities and try hard.”
B) “You can succeed if you are rewarded by the teacher for doing well.”
C) “You can succeed if your parents give you enough love.”
D) “You can succeed if you are basically intelligent.”



80. Tom gets an A on his first test in developmental psych and Tara gets a C. A cognitive behaviorist might conclude the following:
A) Tara has low math self-efficacy.
B) Tom is more genetically gifted in math.
C) Tara hasn’t been reinforced for learning math.
D) Tom has high ego strength.



81. Which advice would a follower of attachment theory give a new mom?
A) “Don’t spoil your baby by giving him too much attention.”
B) “Human beings need to be independent. Don’t let your baby get too attached.”
C) “Once your baby begins to walk, try to leave him alone.”
D) “Give your baby a lot of love, so he will have loving relationships later in life.”



82. You might look to attachment theory to best explain which behavior?
A) why kids learn to hit a baseball
B) why people grieve over the death of a spouse
C) why a third-grader believes that she can do well in math class
D) why you clean your room after your mother nags you



83. What is the MAIN difference between psychoanalytic theory and attachment theory?
A) Psychoanalytic theory emphasizes only the role of early experiences (nurture) in development, while attachment theorists believe in both nurture (early experiences) and nature (biologically programmed responses).
B) There are no differences. Both theories believe that human behavior is totally a function of our early experiences.
C) Psychoanalytic theory emphasizes nature (biologically programmed responses), whereas attachment theorists focus only on nurture (early life experiences).
D) Attachment theory does not mention early life experiences, just nature (biologically programmed responses).



84. Dr. Schatzman is a fan of attachment theory. Pick the statement he would NOT make?
A) “The way our parents treat us during infancy determines adult mental health.”
B) “The attachment response is biologically programmed to come out when babies start to walk.”
C) “We need to have a significant other at every time of life.”
D) “It’s unhealthy to get too attached to people.”



85. Pick the statement an attachment theorist might make:
A) “Children need to be unconditionally loved in the first year of life.”
B) “Children need to be reinforced for acting appropriately.”
C) “Children need to be in the right environment to express their genetic talents.”
D) “Children need to be disciplined not to whine.”



86. ________ look at the genetic tendencies that we share as a species, while ________ explore human genetic differences.
A) Evolutionary psychologists; behavioral geneticists
B) Behavioral geneticists; evolutionary psychologists
C) Traditional behaviorists; evolutionary psychologists
D) Evolutionary psychologists; traditional behaviorists



87. Dr. Hammonds is an evolutionary psychologist. Which research paper is he MOST likely to write?
A) “The effects of experimenter praise on participant accuracy in a card-selection task”
B) “The impact of parental modeling on children’s performance of household chores”
C) “Changes in efficacy feelings with age”
D) “Biologically built-in mate preferences among males versus females”



88. Pick the statement an evolutionary psychologist would make:
A) “To understand behavior, look to whether it increases the chance of our species surviving.”
B) “To understand behavior, look to the reinforcers.”
C) “To understand behavior, look to efficacy feelings.”
D) “To understand behavior, look to how our parents raised us.”



89. Tara continually gets C’s and D’s in math while and Tom always gets A’s. In looking at these scores, an evolutionary theorist might be interested in:
A) how genetic these differences in math abilities are.
B) whether Tom has been more reinforced for performing well in math.
C) whether math abilities are biologically built into being male.
D) whether math abilities can be increased by stimulating Tara’s efficacy feelings.



90. What is the main difference between an evolutionary psychologist and a behavioral geneticist?
A) Evolutionary psychologists speculate about the genetic basis of traits that are common to all human beings; behavioral geneticists conduct research on the genetics of human differences.
B) Evolutionary psychologists conduct research on the genetics of human differences; behavioral geneticists speculate about the genetic basis of traits that are common to all human beings.
C) Evolutionary psychologists focus on nature; behavioral geneticists believe mainly in nurture.
D) Evolutionary psychologists believe mainly in nurture; behavioral geneticists focus on nurture.



91. Monozygotic twins are referred to as ________, while dyzygotic twins are usually called ________.
A) fraternal; identical
B) clones; siblings
C) identical; fraternal
D) conjoined; individuated



92. Tara continually gets C’s and D’s in math while and Tom always gets A’s. A behavioral geneticist would be interested in:
A) how genetic these differences in math abilities are.
B) whether Tom has been more reinforced for performing well in math.
C) whether math abilities are biologically built into being male.
D) whether Tom has higher math self-efficacy than Tara.



93. Someone tells you that the heritability of a trait is 7. You can conclude that the trait is:
A) highly genetically determined.
B) mainly “environmentally determined.
C) 70 percent heredity and 30 percent environment.
D) 30 percent environmental and 70 percent genetic.



94. Which is the highest heritability score?
A) .4
B) .65
C) –.7
D) .28



95. Someone tells you that the heritability of IQ is .75. What should you think?
A) Wow, that means roughly three fourths of my IQ is genetic!
B) Wow, that means if I grew up anywhere in the world, I’d have about the same IQ!
C) Wow, IQ is amazingly genetic!
D) Wow, IQ is quite environmental!



96. Dr. Keith is a behavioral geneticist. Pick the study he would NOT do.
A) Compare identical twins and fraternal twins’ scores on risk taking.
B) Compare adopted children’s personalities to their biological parents.
C) Compare childrearing practices in India and the United States.
D) Compare pairs of identical twins raised apart and reunited in adulthood.



97. According to the Swedish twin adoption study, ________ is the most heritable ability.
A) sexual orientation
B) general intelligence
C) mechanical ability
D) political affiliation



98. When Dr. Hernandez compares happiness in a sample of fraternal and identical twins he finds fraternal twins’ scores on this trait differ a great deal, while identical twins’ scores are virtually “the same.” What should he conclude?
A) Happiness levels are mainly genetic.
B) Happiness levels are mainly environmental.
C) Happiness levels are due to our upbringing.
D) Identical twins are happier than fraternal twins.



99. Pick the twin/adoption study.
A) A researcher compares the personalities of identical twins separated at birth, adopted into different families and reunited as adults.
B) A researcher compares an adopted child’s personality with her biological and adoptive parents.
C) A researcher adopts a child who is a twin.
D) A researcher gives birth to twins and gives them up for adoption.



100. When researchers conducted twin and adoption studies they were astonished to find that:
A) genetics was far more important in shaping behavior than thought.
B) the environment was far more important in shaping behavior than thought.
C) most traits were 50 percent genetic and 50 percent environmental.
D) most traits were 75 percent genetic and 25 percent environmental.



101. Pick the quality that has nothing to do with genetics.
A) religious tendencies
B) political views
C) tendency to drink to excess
D) All of these are somewhat shaped by genetics.



102. You adopt a child and then meet his biological parents. Generalizing from the text, your child will be more like:
A) you.
B) his biological parents.
C) either you or his biological parents—depending on what you are testing.
D) about 50 percent of the time, like you.



103. Pick the example of the evocative heredity/environment relationship.
A) Kerry is crabby when she wakes up, so her husband makes an effort to cheer her up.
B) Josh is always smiling, but his mother can’t understand what he’s so happy about.
C) When things don’t go Ian’s way, he loses his temper. So Ian’s co-workers go out of their way to help him calm down.
D) Nathan is a very argumentative person, so people are always fighting with him.



104. Jocasta has liked to draw from a young age. She gravitated to art classes in high school, majored in graphic design in college, and eventually became a successful commercial artist. A developmentalist would explain Jocasta’s career path in terms of:
A) evocative forces.
B) bidirectional forces.
C) evolutionary forces.
D) active forces.



105. Pick the example of an evocative heredity/environment relationship with a child genetically prone to be grumpy.
A) a child is temperamentally grumpy, so everyone starts yelling at him, and he gets even grumpier
B) a mother takes special care to be kind to her grumpy child
C) a child is genetically prone to be grumpy, so he always hits kids
D) a child shares his biology with his parents, so his parents are grumpy



106. Pick the evocative heredity environment relationship.
A) Jorge is grumpy and unpleasant so people avoid him and he becomes more unhappy and unpleasant over time.
B) Jorge is grumpy and unpleasant so people try to cheer him up and he becomes happier over time
C) Jorge is grumpy and unpleasant because that behavior was evoked by his genes
D) Jorge is grumpy and unpleasant because that behavior was evoked by his unhappy family life.



107. Pick the example of a bidirectional relationship.
A) Jorge is temperamentally grumpy and unpleasant, so people naturally avoid him.
B) Jorge is temperamentally grumpy and unpleasant, so people naturally try to cheer him up.
C) Jorge is temperamentally grumpy and unpleasant, so people respond to him the same as his sister.
D) Jorge is temperamentally grumpy, so he gets angry at the littlest thing.



108. Pick the active heredity environment relationship.
A) Carl loves acting, so he tries out for many plays and becomes a well-known performer as an adult.
B) Carl’s parents unwillingly push him into trying out for the school play.
C) Carl gets rewarded for trying out for the school play by getting the lead part.
D) Carl comes from a family of great actors.



109. Your grandmother was born in 1925. You were born in 1990. If you both took the IQ test at age 7, who would probably get more items correct?
A) You would get more items correct.
B) Your grandmother would get more items correct.
C) You cannot make any predictions.
D) You both would get the same number of items right. After all, you are from the same family.



110. The bottom line message of the heredity environment discussion is:
A) people need the right environment to fully express their inborn talents.
B) people can overcome every obstacle if they try.
C) people can do anything if given the right environment.
D) our life fate lies totally in our genes.



111. Pick the example that does NOT refer to fostering the right person environment fit.
A) A child gifted in music is sent to an arts camp.
B) A child who gets overwhelmed by stress is put in a calm situation.
C) A child who is very active is given a lot of outdoor playtime.
D) A child who is difficult is given strict discipline to help him behave.



112. What is your book’s basic take away message with regard to nature and nurture?
A) Even when a trait is highly genetic, it’s crucial to provide the best environment, one that helps promote a child’s unique strengths and minimize his negative tendencies.
B) As genetics is so important, changing the environment doesn’t often work.
C) It’s easy to separate out what is genetic from what is environmental.
D) Luckily, children around the world have a good chance of expressing their genetic gifts.



113. Which action does NOT apply to providing a good person-environment fit?
A) A principal builds in regular recess, because she knows kids biologically need to run around.
B) Your town provides a good public transportation service, because the town managers know that if older people can’t drive they may need to go to a nursing home.
C) I try to baby proof the house, so my 2-year-old does not hurt himself.
D) I give Ritalin to an ADHD child, because he has trouble sitting still in class.



114. What is a main take home message of the book’s nature and nurture discussion?
A) Our genetic makeup determines how our lives turn out.
B) It doesn’t really matter what genes we’re born with; it’s how we’re raised that counts.
C) Genes determine our physical appearance, but little else.
D) We are happiest and most likely to thrive in environments that match our inborn abilities and talents.



115. Dr. Intelligent believes strongly in psychoanalytic theory. He might make all of the following statements EXCEPT:
A) “Our personalities (and mental health) depend on how our parents treated us during early childhood.”
B) “Our personalities are dominated by unconscious feelings stemming from childhood.”
C) “Self-understanding is the key to a successful life.”
D) “ Our behavior is very rational—meaning we use reasoning in making life choices.”



116. If you visit a psychoanalytic therapist for treatment, you would ________.
A) discuss your childhood for clues to your adult life
B) discuss the reinforcers shaping your behavior
C) get homework exercises to employ between sessions
D) be told to stimulate self-efficacy



117. A couple comes to your office for therapy. If you are a psychoanalytically oriented psychologist, you would focus on:
A) increasing the positive comments the spouses make.
B) understanding the unconscious motivations from childhood that are keeping this couple from relating to each other successfully.
C) increasing efficacy feelings.
D) providing medications.



118. The goal of psychoanalytic treatment is:
A) to foster ego strength.
B) to foster self-awareness.
C) to understand one’s childhood motivations and feelings.
D) All of these are goals.



119. If a psychoanalyst tells you that you have a “strong ego” you should feel:
A) complemented as this person is saying you are mentally healthy.
B) angry because this person is saying you are a narcissist.
C) puzzled because this person hasn’t mentioned your id.
D) anxious because the superego is most important in development.



120. Cora has been able to cope very well with some serious life stresses. A psychoanalytic theorist would interpret Cora’s behavior as showing:
A) high self-efficacy.
B) good ego strength.
C) positive motivation.
D) high self-esteem.



121. Baby Clara just turned 1. According to Erikson, her life task is ________, while according to psychoanalytic theory, she is in ________.
A) basic trust; the oral stage
B) the oral stage; basic trust
C) the anal stage; basic trust
D) basic trust; the anal stage



122. All are basic differences between Erikson’s ideas and traditional Freudian psychoanalytic theory EXCEPT:
A) Freud believed development ends at age 5, while Erikson believed we develop throughout life.
B) Freud believed sexuality is our basic motivation, while Erikson believed our main mission is becoming an independent self and having caring relationships.
C) Freud’s stages of development end after early childhood, while Erikson believed we develop into old age.
D) Freud believed childhood was crucially important, while Erikson didn’t believe childhood was important.



123. According to psychoanalytic theory, the superego forms during:
A) the oral stage.
B) the anal stage.
C) the Oedipus complex.
D) adulthood.



124. Pick the correct order of Freud’s psychosexual stages.
A) anal, oral, phallic
B) oral, anal, phallic
C) phallic, oral, anal
D) anal, phallic, oral



125. Baby Clara just turned 1. According to Freud, Clara is in the:
A) oral stage.
B) anal stage.
C) phallic stage.
D) basic trust stage.



126. Erikson’s MAJOR contribution to the field of human development was:
A) spelling out the principle that we develop throughout the lifespan.
B) showing that children think and reason differently than adults.
C) making Freud’s work accessible to the public.
D) showing that human behavior obeys basic laws of learning.



127. For Erikson, each life stage is characterized by a particular:
A) sociocentric challenge.
B) cultural role.
C) psychosocial task.
D) prosocial quest.



128. Stage theories assume that:
A) we more or less stay the same at each stage of life.
B) we gradually get better at each life stage in ways that can be ranked on a scale of 1-10.
C) our behavior cannot be predicted at each stage of life.
D) we are qualitatively different “as people” at different stages of life.



129. Piaget was MOST interested in:
A) children’s reading capacities as they move through school.
B) bonds of affection between mother and infant.
C) young children’s strange ideas about the world.
D) identity development in teens.



130. Pick the best example of “accommodation” in Piaget’s terminology.
A) You realize in class that the standard way you classified minority groups masks huge differences in cultures.
B) You realize in class that you really know all the material.
C) You realize in class that you don’t think the same way as your teacher.
D) You realize in class that your strongly held political opinions are right.



131. Pick the best example of “assimilation” in Piaget’s terminology.
A) You relate what your teacher is saying to your own “knowledge base.”
B) You agree with everything your teacher says.
C) You take good notes on what your teacher says.
D) You vow to become exactly like your teacher.



132. Piaget studied cognitive development by:
A) observing and questioning children.
B) measuring how much children know at different ages.
C) comparing children on different abilities.
D) analyzing children’s relationships with their parents.



133. According to Bronfenbrenner’s theory, our:
A) family is the only influence on our lives.
B) friends are the only influence on our lives.
C) cohort is the only influence on our lives.
D) lives are shaped by many different influences—friends, family, school system, culture, and so forth.



134. Using Bronfenbrenner’s theory, pick the influence that most immediately affects a child.
A) family relationships
B) the school system
C) the culture
D) the medical system



135. Pick the statement a developmental systems theorist would make.
A) “Human behavior is very complex. If we follow only one theory, we cannot fully understand human beings.”
B) “We need to do research in the laboratory, where we can isolate single variables.”
C) “Biology and culture are completely separate.”
D) “It’s important to believe strongly in a single theory.”



136. According to the developmental systems perspective, it is important to understand the ________ of different forces.
A) interactions
B) universality
C) isolation
D) unidirectionality



137. Which research program BEST illustrates the developmental systems perspective?
A) Experts in Erikson’s psychosocial theory collaborate on a study of the effects of Hurricane Katrina.
B) Two therapists work together on a treatment plan for depressed adolescents.
C) A geneticist, a psychologist, and a sociologist collaborate to understand the complex causes of school phobia in children.
D) A school district hires Piagetian educators to overhaul its curriculum.



138. Tikana decides to look at the relationship between college students’ height and happiness. She is conducting a:
A) correlational study.
B) true experiment.
C) cross-sectional study.
D) longitudinal study.



139. Dr. Hardy wants to find out whether there is a correlation between physical exercise and mental ability. Pick the most representative sample.
A) trainers at gyms around town
B) people who log on to a running club Website
C) a random group of adults
D) people over age 50 who work out regularly



140. Your psychology professor asks you to help him with his study of aggressive children. Your job is to go to a playground and record the frequency of aggressive acts among a sample of first graders. Your measurement technique is called:
A) self-report.
B) expert assessment.
C) naturalistic observation.
D) experimental manipulation.



141. If you give parents a questionnaire to determine their childrearing skills, you are using ________. If you go into parents’ homes to observe the their childrearing skills, you are using ________.
A) self-reports; naturalistic observation
B) naturalistic observation; self-reports
C) ability tests; self-reports
D) self-reports; observer reports



142. The measurement technique in which researchers directly record and observe behavior is called ________.
A) naturalistic observation
B) self-reports
C) observer evaluations
D) ability tests



143. Your psychology professor wants to measure “parent aggressiveness.” Pick the ideal strategy.
A) Visit each home where there is a family for a day and chart how often the parent hits the kids.
B) Develop a questionnaire asking parents “How often do you hit your kids?”
C) Go down the street and ask two neighbors of each family, “Does the parent hit the kids a lot?”
D) None of these techniques is ideal. Each has problems and bias.



144. Choose the correct name for each measurement technique.(1) watching people directly and coding their behavior

(2) giving a questionnaire to a large group

A) (1) self-report, (2) naturalistic observation
B) (1) naturalistic observation, (2) self-report
C) (1) correlation, (2) experiment
D) (1) experiment, (2) correlation



145. Which researcher is selecting the MOST representative sample?
A) Adela, whose study of parenting activities involves giving questionnaires to 10     middle-class moms.
B) Barnabas, whose research on the frequency of marital problems polls divorced men
C) Charlotte, whose investigation of adolescents’ friendships samples students from five high schools of varying sizes
D) Dragan, whose study of health beliefs in older adults involves talking to senior citizens in the hospital



146. If Tikana explores the relationship between college students’ height and happiness and finds taller students are happier, she can conclude:
A) being tall causes people to be happy.
B) not much other than that there is a relationship. There may be many reasons to explain this association.
C) being happy causes people to grow taller (because they are less stressed out).
D) happiness cannot be measured.



147. Which research question MUST be tested by a correlational study?
A) determining if parents who frequently hit their children have more aggressive children
B) determining if reinforcement promotes superior learning
C) determining if children with ADHD respond best to a certain medication
D) determining if varying the temperature of a room effects personality



148. Dr. Johnson is studying the effects of alcohol consumption on memory. He randomly assigns people to four groups. Three groups consume varying amounts of alcohol, and one group is given only soft drinks. This research design is called a(n):
A) experiment.
B) correlational study.
C) longitudinal study.
D) naturalistic study.



149. Samantha wants to know if older people are wiser than younger people. So she gives 20-year-olds, 40-year-olds, and 60-year-olds a “wisdom test.” Samantha is conducting a(n):
A) experiment.
B) longitudinal study.
C) cross-sectional study.
D) correlational study.



150. To find out if older people are wiser than younger people, Samantha gives 20-year-olds, 40-year-olds, and 60-year-olds a “wisdom test. If Samantha finds that on average wisdom scores increase in each older group, what should she conclude?
A) As people get older, they get wiser.
B) Older age groups (cohorts) are indeed wiser, but we don’t know if wisdom actually increases with age.
C) Nothing. It’s a lousy study.
D) Samantha is in for a huge amount of work.



151. A friend wants to explore age differences in happiness for her Ph.D. thesis. You should probably advise her to conduct a:
A) cross-sectional study because it lets us find out which people get happier over time.
B) cross-sectional study because it is easier to carry out.
C) longitudinal study because she won’t have to get subjects back.
D) longitudinal study because it is easier to carry out.



152. Dr. Olson is studying the importance of privacy to people of different ages. In a cross-sectional study, she finds that people in their sixties are more reluctant to reveal personal information than are college students. What is the BEST conclusion?
A) As people get older, they care more about privacy.
B) Older people have always been less trusting of outsiders.
C) Because they have grown up in the digital age, today’s college students are used to revealing personal information. They will probably be just as willing to self-disclose when they reach retirement.
D) Yes, today’s older people care more about privacy; but unless we conduct a longitudinal study, we can’t know whether people value privacy more as they age.



153. Paul is arguing that we need longitudinal research to really study development. Pick the argument he should NOT make.
A) These studies alone reveal data about individual differences in change.
B) These studies alone show how people really change over time.
C) These studies alone shine a light on how early experiences relate to later behaviors.
D) These studies alone show cohort effects.



154. Peter cautions Paul that longitudinal research has incredible problems. Pick the statement Peter should NOT make.
A) You will need a lot of money and patience, as these studies are expensive and take years (or decades) to complete.
B) You will need to select a huge sample because people drop out over time.
C) You won’t be able to show how individual people change over time.
D) You will probably end up with data about how “the best people” age and develop, not the average person.



155. Longitudinal research:
A) takes a long time to carry out.
B) requires a huge sample as people drop out as the study goes on.
C) tends to show how the “best people” develop, not the average person.
D) All of these are correct.



156. Which of the following is NOT a current trend in developmental research?
A) using several different measures of each concept
B) making cross-cultural comparisons (or conducting studies outside of the United States)
C) carrying out qualitative research
D) conducting more experiments



157. Who is conducting a qualitative study of divorce?
A) Jose interviews 10 people about how their divorce affected them.
B) Mary compares children of divorce and those in intact families on a measure of mental health.
C) Kayla tracks the impact of divorce on rates of disease.
D) Carl looks at the frequency of U.S. divorces today compared to 10 years ago.




Answer Key


1. D
2. B
3. A
4. A
5. B
6. C
7. A
8. C
9. B
10. B
11. B
12. A
13. C
14. A
15. B
16. D
17. B
18. C
19. C
20. A
21. D
22. A
23. C
24. D
25. A
26. B
27. C
28. A
29. B
30. D
31. A
32. B
33. D
34. D
35. A
36. D
37. A
38. D
39. D
40. D
41. D
42. B
43. C
44. B
45. B
46. D
47. D
48. A
49. D
50. D
51. D
52. B
53. C
54. D
55. B
56. D
57. B
58. B
59. C
60. D
61. A
62. B
63. A
64. B
65. C
66. A
67. D
68. A
69. D
70. A
71. C
72. B
73. D
74. B
75. C
76. A
77. A
78. A
79. A
80. A
81. D
82. B
83. A
84. D
85. A
86. A
87. D
88. A
89. C
90. A
91. A
92. A
93. A
94. B
95. C
96. C
97. B
98. A
99. A
100. A
101. D
102. B
103. D
104. D
105. A
106. A
107. A
108. A
109. A
110. A
111. D
112. A
113. D
114. D
115. D
116. A
117. B
118. D
119. A
120. B
121. A
122. D
123. C
124. B
125. A
126. A
127. C
128. D
129. C
130. A
131. A
132. A
133. D
134. A
135. A
136. A
137. C
138. A
139. C
140. C
141. A
142. A
143. D
144. B
145. C
146. B
147. A
148. A
149. C
150. B
151. B
152. D
153. D
154. C
155. D
156. D
157. A