Test Bank For Structure and Function of the Body 14th Edition

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Test Bank For Structure and Function of the Body 14th Edition

 

Sample Chapter Below:

 

Thibodeau & Patton: Structure & Function of the Body, 14th Edition

 

 

Chapter 02: Chemistry of Life

 

 

Test Bank

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a subatomic particle that makes up the atom?
a. ion
b. proton
c. neutron
d. electron

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. The atomic number of an atom is equal to the number of:
a. electrons
b. neutrons
c. protons
d. both b and c above

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. The atomic mass of an atom is equal to the number of:
a. electrons
b. neutrons
c. protons
d. both b and c above

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. This subatomic particle is found in the nucleus of the atom.
a. electron
b. neutron
c. proton
d. both b and c above

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. This subatomic particle is found in orbitals around the nucleus of the atom.
a. electron
b. neutron
c. proton
d. both b and c above

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. This is not a characteristic of a proton:
a. contributes to the atom’s atomic number
b. contributes to the atom’s atomic mass
c. is located in the nucleus of the atom
d. carries a negative electrical charge

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. This is not a characteristic of a neutron:
a. contributes to the atom’s atomic number
b. contributes to the atom’s atomic mass
c. is located in the nucleus of the atom
d. has no electrical charge

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. This is not a characteristic of an electron:
a. is in an orbital around the nucleus of the atom
b. has a negative electrical charge
c. contributes to the atom’s atomic number
d. all of the above are characteristics of an electron

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. A particular atom has 16 protons, 17 neutrons, and 16 electrons. The atomic number of this atom is:
a. 49
b. 32
c. 33
d. 16

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 19         TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. A particular atom has 16 protons, 17 neutrons, and 16 electrons. The atomic mass of this atom is:
a. 49
b. 32
c. 33
d. 16

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 19         TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. The second energy level of an atom:
a. has four orbitals
b. can hold eight electrons
c. is a lower energy level then the first energy level
d. both a and b above

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 20         TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. Compounds are:
a. pure substances
b. made up of only one type of atom
c. made up of two or more different types of atoms
d. both a and b above

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. The formula for oxygen gas is O2; this means it is:
a. made up of two atoms of oxygen
b. a molecule
c. a compound
d. both a and b above

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. If an atom had 20 protons and 18 electrons, it would:
a. have a negative 2 charge
b. have a plus 2 charge
c. be attracted to a positively charged ion
d. both a and c above

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 21         TOP:  Ionic bonds

 

  1. Ionic bonds:
a. usually dissolve easily in water
b. produced ions when dissolved in water
c. are formed by atoms of opposite charge
d. all of the above

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 21 | Page: 22

TOP:  Ionic bonds

 

  1. Covalent bonds:
a. dissociate in water
b. are formed when electrons are shared between atoms
c. are formed by atoms of opposite charge
d. both a and c above

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 22

TOP:  Covalent bonds

 

  1. Organic compounds must contain:
a. oxygen
b. carbon–oxygen bonds
c. hydrogen–oxygen bonds
d. none of the above

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 23

TOP:  Inorganic chemistry

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of water?
a. Water is the most abundant organic compound in the body.
b. Water is found both in and around the cells of the body.
c. Water is the solvent in which most other compounds are dissolved.
d. All of the above are true of water.

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 23

TOP:  Water

 

  1. In a dehydration synthesis reaction:
a. water is a reactant
b. water is a product
c. a large molecule is broken down into a smaller one
d. both a and c above

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 24

TOP:  Water

 

  1. In a dehydration synthesis reaction:
a. hydrogen and oxygen are removed from the reactants
b. water is added to the reactants
c. water is broken down into hydrogen and oxygen
d. both a and c above

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 24

TOP:  Water

 

  1. In a hydrolysis reaction:
a. water is a product
b. water is a reactant
c. water is broken down into hydrogen and oxygen
d. the product is larger than either reactant

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 24

TOP:  Water

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
a. The process of hydrolysis is used to build a larger molecule from smaller molecules.
b. Water is an end product of a hydrolysis reaction.
c. The process of dehydration synthesis is used to build a larger molecule from smaller molecules.
d. Water is a reactant in a dehydration synthesis reaction.

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 24

TOP:  Water

 

  1. Which is not true of the following chemical equation? K+ + Cl ? KCl
a. The equation indicates that there are two reactants.
b. The equation indicates that there is one product.
c. The equation indicates that the reaction occurs in both directions equally.
d. All of the above are true.

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 24

TOP:  Inorganic chemistry

 

  1. An acid:
a. has a pH greater than 7
b. has a pH less than 7
c. has more OH ions than H+ ions in solution
d. both a and c above

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 25

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. A base:
a. has a pH greater than 7
b. has a pH less than 7
c. has more OH ions than H+ ions in solution
d. both a and c above

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 25

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. A solution with a pH of 6:
a. is an acid
b. is a base
c. has 10 times more H+ ions than a solution with a pH of 5
d. both a and c above

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 25

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. A solution with a pH of 11:
a. is an acid
b. is a base
c. has 10 times more OH ions than a solution with a pH of 10
d. both b and c above

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 25

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. When the body removes CO2 by way of the respiratory system:
a. it lowers the pH of the blood
b. it raises the pH of the blood
c. it has no effect on pH because CO2 is neither an acid nor a base
d. it is acting as a buffer

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 25

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. If a strong acid were added to one container of pure water and an equal amount of a weak acid were added to a second container of pure water:
a. the pH of both containers would go up equally
b. the pH of both containers would go down equally
c. the pH of the container with the strong acid would go up more than the container with the weak acid
d. none of the above

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 25         TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. Which of the following is a monosaccharide?
a. glucose
b. sucrose
c. lactose
d. glucagon

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26

TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. Which of the following is a disaccharide?
a. glucose
b. sucrose
c. starch
d. glycogen

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26

TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. Which of the following is a polysaccharide?
a. glucose
b. lactose
c. sucrose
d. glycogen

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26

TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. Liver cells and muscle cells are able to store chains of glucose in a molecule called:
a. glycogen
b. polyglucose
c. sucrose
d. lactose

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26

TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of triglycerides?
a. A part of the molecule attracts water.
b. The molecule contains three fatty acids.
c. The molecule contains glycerol.
d. Triglycerides are used by the body to store energy.

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 27

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of phospholipids?
a. The molecule contains three fatty acids.
b. The molecule has a water-attracting part.
c. The molecule has a water-repelling part.
d. It is important in the structure of the cell membrane.

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 27

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of cholesterol?
a. It is a steroid lipid.
b. It helps stabilize the cell membrane.
c. It contains only two fatty acids.
d. It is the starting point for making the hormone estrogen.

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 28

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. This lipid can be found in the cell membrane:
a. triglycerides
b. phospholipids
c. cholesterol
d. both b and c above

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 27 | Page: 28

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. Which of the following is a structural protein?
a. hormones
b. collagen
c. growth factor
d. enzymes

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 28 | Page: 29

TOP:  Proteins

 

  1. The “lock and key” model is use to describe the functioning of:
a. enzymes
b. collagen molecules
c. keratin molecules
d. both a and c above

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Proteins

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of enzymes?
a. They function on the lock and key model.
b. They are functional proteins.
c. They are catalysts.
d. All of the above are true of enzymes.

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Proteins

 

  1. This molecule is found in DNA but not RNA:
a. guanine
b. thymine
c. uracil
d. adenine

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

  1. This molecule is found in DNA but not RNA:
a. adenine
b. ribose sugar
c. deoxyribose sugar
d. phosphate

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

  1. This molecule is found in RNA but not DNA:
a. guanine
b. thymine
c. uracil
d. adenine

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

  1. This molecule is found in RNA but not DNA:
a. ribose sugar
b. deoxyribose sugar
c. adenine
d. cytosine

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

  1. This subatomic particle does not contribute to the mass of an atom:
a. proton
b. neutron
c. electron
d. all of the above particles contribute to the mass of an atom

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. The magnesium atom has two electrons in its outer energy level and is willing to donate both of them. The sodium atom has seven electrons in its outer energy level and will accept one electron. The chemical formula for the compound formed by magnesium and sodium would be:
a. Mg2Na
b. MgNa2
c. Mg2S
d. MgS2

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Synthesis       REF:  Page: 21 | Page: 22

TOP:  Ionic bonds

 

  1. Which of the following organs help maintain the proper pH of body fluids?
a. kidneys by forming urine
b. lungs by exhaling carbon dioxide
c. spleen by filtering the blood
d. both a and b above

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 25

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. Which of the following lipids do not contain fatty acids?
a. phospholipids
b. cholesterol
c. triglycerides
d. both a and b above

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 28

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. Which of the following lipids are used as starting points in the making of hormones?
a. phospholipids
b. cholesterol
c. triglycerides
d. both b and c above

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 28

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. In an atom, each orbital can hold:
a. one electron
b. two electrons
c. eight electrons
d. hydrogen can hold two and the rest of the atoms can hold eight

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. An isotope is an atom with:
a. more protons than electrons
b. more electrons than protons
c. the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
d. either a or b above

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 21

TOP:  Clinical Application: Radioactive Isotopes

 

  1. Which of the following carries a positive electrical charge?
a. proton
b. neutron
c. electron
d. both proton and neutron

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. Which of the following is found in the nucleus of the atom?
a. proton
b. neutron
c. electron
d. both proton and neutron

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. Which of the following is found in orbitals surrounding the nucleus of the atom?
a. proton
b. neutron
c. electron
d. both proton and neutron

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. Which of the following carries no electrical charge?
a. proton
b. neutron
c. electron
d. both proton and neutron

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. Which of the following contributes to the atom’s atomic mass?
a. proton
b. neutron
c. electron
d. both proton and neutron

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. Which of the following contributes to the atom’s atomic number?
a. proton
b. neutron
c. electron
d. both proton and neutron

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. Which of the following carries a negative electrical charge?
a. proton
b. neutron
c. electron
d. both proton and neutron

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. Which of the following contain three fatty acids and a molecule of glycerol?
a. enzymes
b. triglycerides
c. phospholipids
d. all of the above

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 27

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a monosaccharide?
a. glucose
b. lactose
c. glycogen
d. starch

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26

TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. Which of the following has thymine as one of its nucleotides?
a. DNA
b. RNA
c. both a and b above
d. neither a nor b above

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

  1. Which of the following is a lipid with a water-attracting and water-repelling part of its molecule?
a. triglycerides
b. cholesterol
c. phospholipids
d. none of the above

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 27

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a structural protein?
a. enzymes
b. collagen
c. glycogen
d. none of the above

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 28

TOP:  Proteins

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a functional protein?
a. collagen
b. glycogen
c. enzymes
d. none of the above

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Proteins

 

  1. Which of the following is a lipid that can be found along with cholesterol in the cell membrane?
a. triglycerides
b. phospholipids
c. both a and b above
d. neither a nor b above

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 27

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. Which of the following is a nucleic acid with a double helix structure?
a. DNA
b. RNA
c. both a and b above
d. neither a nor b above

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

  1. Which of the following is a protein whose function is explained by the lock and key model?
a. collagen
b. glycogen
c. enzymes
d. none of the above

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Proteins

 

  1. Which of the following has uracil as one of its nucleotides?
a. DNA
b. RNA
c. both a and b above
d. neither a nor b above

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a disaccharide?
a. glucose
b. dextrose
c. glycogen
d. lactose

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26

TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. Which of the following is a starting substance for making the hormones estrogen and testosterone?
a. lactose
b. collagen
c. DNA
d. cholesterol

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 28

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. Which of the following acts as a chemical catalyst?
a. DNA
b. RNA
c. enzymes
d. phospholipids

 

ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Proteins

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a polysaccharide?
a. glucose
b. glycogen
c. dextrose
d. lactose

 

ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26

TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. Which of the following is the steroid lipid?
a. cholesterol
b. triglycerides
c. enzymes
d. phospholipids

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 28

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. This element is not one of the elements that makes up 96% of the body.
a. nitrogen
b. hydrogen
c. oxygen
d. sodium

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. This is a way the body can remove excess H+ ions from the body:
a. excreting them in the urine
b. exhaling CO2 from the lungs
c. using a buffer
d. all of the above can remove H+ ions from the blood

 

ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 25

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. This modified nucleotide plays an important role in energy-transfer in the body:
a. adenosine triphosphate
b. enzymes
c. mRNA
d. glycoproteins

 

ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 30

TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Matter can be defined as anything that occupies space and has mass.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Levels of chemical organization

 

  1. Atoms have never been seen by scientists, but their presence is strongly supported by the atomic theory.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. The proton of the atom carries a positive electrical charge.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. The proton of the atom is found in orbitals around the nucleus.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. The proton of an atom is found in the nucleus.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. An atom with 15 protons would have an atomic mass of 15.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 19         TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. An atom with 15 protons would have an atomic number of 15.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 19         TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. An atom with 15 protons and 15 electrons would have an atomic mass of 30.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 19         TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. An atom with 15 protons and 15 neutrons would have an atomic mass of 30.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 19         TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. Neutrons have no electrical charge.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. Neutrons and electrons are found in the nucleus of the atom.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. Neutrons contribute to the atomic number of an atom.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. Neutrons contribute to the atomic mass of the atom.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. Electrons carry a negative electrical charge.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. The number of electrons plus the number of protons is equal to the atomic number of an atom.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. All orbitals of an atom can hold two electrons.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. All energy levels of an atom can hold four orbitals.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. All energy levels can hold eight electrons.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. The first energy level of an atom can hold only two orbitals.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. The first energy level of an atom is closest to the nucleus and is the lowest energy level.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. The terms energy level and electron orbital are interchangeable.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. Elements are pure substances.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. The terms molecule and compound are interchangeable.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. A formula of a compound tells you the number and types of elements that make up that compound.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. The elements sodium, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen make up 96% of the human body.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. An atom is said to be chemically stable when its outer energy level is full.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 21

TOP:  Chemical bonding

 

  1. An atom with one more electron than proton would have a plus one charge.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 21 | Page: 22

TOP:  Ionic bonds

 

  1. In order for an atom to be an ion, the number of electrons cannot equal the number of protons.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 21 | Page: 22

TOP:  Ionic bonds

 

  1. When ionic compounds dissolve in water, they tend to dissociate into ions.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 22

TOP:  Ionic bonds

 

  1. The ions that are dissolved in water are called electrolytes.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 22

TOP:  Ionic bonds

 

  1. The symbol for a sodium atom that has lost one electron would be Na.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 22         TOP:  Ionic bonds

 

  1. The symbol for a sodium atom that has lost one electron would be Na+.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 22         TOP:  Ionic bonds

 

  1. Atom X has eight electrons, two in its first energy level and six in its second energy level. It would most likely form an ion with a plus two charge.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Synthesis       REF:  Page: 21 | Page: 22

TOP:  Ionic bonds

 

  1. Covalent bonds do not usually dissociate in water.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 22

TOP:  Covalent bonds

 

  1. Covalent bonds dissociate into ions when dissolved in water.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 22

TOP:  Covalent bonds

 

  1. All compounds in the human body are, by definition, organic compounds.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 23

TOP:  Inorganic chemistry

 

  1. Organic compounds must have either a C–C or C–H bond.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 23

TOP:  Inorganic chemistry

 

  1. Water is an inorganic compound.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 23

TOP:  Water

 

  1. Aqueous solutions have water as the solvent.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 23

TOP:  Water

 

  1. In a dehydration synthesis reaction, water is always a reactant.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 24

TOP:  Water

 

  1. In a dehydration synthesis reaction, water is always a product.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 24

TOP:  Water

 

  1. In dehydration synthesis reaction, smaller reactants are joined to form a larger product.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 24

TOP:  Water

 

  1. In the process of hydrolysis, a molecule of water is broken down to hydrogen and oxygen.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 24

TOP:  Water

 

  1. In hydrolysis, water is used to break the bonds of a larger molecule and convert it to smaller molecules.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 24

TOP:  Water

 

  1. In a hydrolysis reaction, water is always an end product.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 24

TOP:  Water

 

  1. Hydrolysis is virtually the reverse of a dehydration synthesis reaction.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 24

TOP:  Water

 

  1. Acids produce an excess of H+ ions.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 25

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. Bases produce an excess of OH ions.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 25

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. An increase in H+ ions will cause an increase in the pH value.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 25

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. An increase in pH value would mean more H+ ions are in solution.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 25         TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. A solution with a pH of 4 has 100 times more H+ ions than a solution with a pH of 2.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 25         TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. A solution with a pH of 3 has 10 times more H+ ions than a solution with a pH of 4.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 25         TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. A solution that has a greater concentration of OH ions than H+ ions would be called a base.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 25

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. A strong acid added to a solution would raise the pH more than the same amount of a weak acid added to the solution.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 25         TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. When a neutralization reaction occurs between a strong acid and base, one of the end products is water.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 25

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. A buffer is a chemical that helps prevent a sudden change in pH.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. The word carbohydrate literally means “sugar.”

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26

TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. Both sucrose and lactose are monosaccharides.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26

TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. Glucose is used by the body as a source of energy.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26

TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. Both sucrose and lactose are disaccharides.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26

TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. A molecule of glycogen contains more saccharide units than a molecule of sucrose.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 26         TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. A molecule of glucose has more saccharide units than a molecule of lactose.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 26         TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. Muscles store chains of glucose in a molecule called dextrose.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26

TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. Glycogen and starch are both polysaccharides.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26 | Page: 27

TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. Cholesterol is an important source of energy for the body.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 28

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. Phospholipids and triglycerides both contain fatty acids.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 27

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. Phospholipids and triglycerides both have parts of their molecules that attract water.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 27

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. Phospholipids are the starting substance for several steroid hormones in the body.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 27

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. Both phospholipids and cholesterol are structural components of the cell membrane.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 27 | Page: 28

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. Both phospholipids and cholesterol are steroid lipids.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 27 | Page: 28

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. The bonds that join amino acids together to form a protein are called peptide bonds.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 28

TOP:  Proteins

 

  1. The functional proteins in the body include hormones, collagen, and cell membrane receptors.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 28

TOP:  Proteins

 

  1. The shape of proteins determines their role in body chemistry.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 28 | Page: 29

TOP:  Proteins

 

  1. The basic building blocks of nucleic acids are nucleotides.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

  1. Both DNA and RNA contain uracil.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

  1. Both DNA and RNA contain a sugar molecule as part of their structure.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 29         TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

  1. Both DNA and RNA have a double helix structure.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

  1. DNA is the “master code” for making proteins.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

  1. LDLs have a high concentration of protein and low concentration of lipid.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Clinical Application: Blood Lipoproteins

 

  1. HDL is sometimes called the “bad” cholesterol.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Clinical Application: Blood Lipoproteins

 

  1. LDL is sometimes called the “bad” cholesterol.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Clinical Application: Blood Lipoproteins

 

  1. High levels of LDL are associated with the development of atherosclerosis.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Clinical Application: Blood Lipoproteins

 

  1. An atom’s mass number is usually greater than its atomic number.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 19         TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. An atom’s atomic number is usually greater than its mass number.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 19         TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. Electrons move in an elliptical orbit rather than a circular orbit around the nucleus.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19 | Page: 20

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. An electron in the third energy level is closer to the nucleus than an electron in the second energy level.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. All compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. The bond between carbon and hydrogen in an organic compound is an example of a covalent bond.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 23

TOP:  Inorganic chemistry

 

  1. Water is the most abundant solute in the body.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 23

TOP:  Water

 

  1. Chemical bonds can store potential chemical energy.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 24

TOP:  Water

 

  1. The primary source of energy used by the body is a carbohydrate.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26

TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. The only group of organic compounds that contains sugar is the carbohydrates.

 

ANS: F                    DIF:   Application   REF:  Page: 26 | Page: 29

TOP:  Carbohydrates|Nucleic acids

 

  1. Adenosine triphosphate is a modified nucleotide that is important in energy transfer in the body.

 

ANS: T                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 30

TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

MATCHING

 

Match the name of the element with the correct symbol.

a. Potassium
b. Phosphorus
c. Sodium
d. Calcium
e. Carbon
f. Hydrogen
g. Chlorine
h. Nitrogen

 

 

  1. C

 

  1. Ca

 

  1. Cl

 

  1. H

 

  1. Na

 

  1. P

 

  1. K

 

  1. N

 

  1. ANS: E                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. ANS: G                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. ANS: H                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

Match the term with its definition or explanation.

a. Proton
b. Electron
c. Neutron
d. Atomic mass
e. Atomic number
f. Element
g. Compound
h. Hydrolysis
i. Acid
j. Base
k. Covalent bond
l. Ionic bond
m. Water
n. Buffer
o. Electrolytes
p. Dehydration synthesis

 

 

  1. A process where a molecule of water is used to make large compounds smaller

 

  1. A substance composed of more than one type of element

 

  1. When an ionic compound dissociates in water it forms these

 

  1. Bond formed by the attraction of opposite charges

 

  1. A subatomic particle with a positive charge

 

  1. The most important inorganic compound in the body

 

  1. A substance that resists a change in pH

 

  1. A subatomic particle with a negative charge

 

  1. The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom

 

  1. The number of protons in an atom

 

  1. A pure substance made up of only one kind of atom

 

  1. A subatomic particle with no charge

 

  1. A substance that increases the concentration of H+ ions in a solution

 

  1. A bond formed when electrons are shared

 

  1. A substance that increases the concentration of OH ions in a solution

 

  1. A process where a molecule of water is removed to make two small molecules into one larger molecule

 

  1. ANS: H                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 24

TOP:  Water

 

  1. ANS: G                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. ANS: O                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 22

TOP:  Ionic bonds

 

  1. ANS: L                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 21 | Page: 22

TOP:  Ionic bonds

 

  1. ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. ANS: M                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 23

TOP:  Water

 

  1. ANS: N                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. ANS: E                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 19

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. ANS: I                     DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 25

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. ANS: K                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 22

TOP:  Covalent bonds

 

  1. ANS: J                     DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 25

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. ANS: P                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 24

TOP:  Water

 

Match the term with the definition or explanation.

a. Glucose
b. Enzyme
c. Triglyceride
d. Glycogen
e. Cholesterol
f. Adenosine triphosphate
g. RNA
h. Phospholipids
i. Collagen
j. DNA

 

 

  1. This is an example of a functional protein.

 

  1. This nucleic acid has thymine as one of its nitrogen bases.

 

  1. This lipid has a side that attracts water and another side that repels water and is important in formation of cell membranes.

 

  1. This is the monosaccharide that the body prefers for its source of energy.

 

  1. This is an example of a structural protein.

 

  1. This nucleic acid has uracil as one of its nitrogen bases.

 

  1. This lipid is made up of a molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids.

 

  1. This is a special type of nucleotide that is used to transfer energy in the body.

 

  1. This is a lipid that is used in the making of a number of hormones in the body.

 

  1. This is the polysaccharide that the human body stores for energy.

 

  1. ANS: B                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Proteins

 

  1. ANS: J                     DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

  1. ANS: H                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 27

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. ANS: A                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26

TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

  1. ANS: I                     DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 28

TOP:  Protein

 

  1. ANS: G                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 29

TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

  1. ANS: C                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 27

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. ANS: F                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 30

TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

  1. ANS: E                    DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 28

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. ANS: D                   DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:   Page: 26 |Page: 27

TOP:  Carbohydrates

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Briefly describe the structure of the atom.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:              Page: 19 | Page: 20

TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. A particular atom contains 28 protons, 28 electrons, and 31 neutrons. What is its atomic mass? What is its atomic number?

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:   Synthesis       REF:  Page: 19        TOP:  Atoms

 

  1. Distinguish among an element, a molecule, and a compound.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:              Page: 20

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. Write the correct chemical formula for a substance containing four atoms of chlorine and one atom of carbon.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:   Synthesis       REF:  Page: 20 | Page: 21

TOP:  Elements, molecules, and compounds

 

  1. Assume an atom of element X has two electrons in its outermost energy level. Two atoms of element Y each have seven electrons in their outermost energy level (eight is stable). Explain how an ionic bond would form among these three atoms and give the formula for the compound.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:   Synthesis       REF:  Page: 20 |Page: 21                          TOP:  Atoms|Ionic bonds

 

  1. Explain the relationship between the number of H+ ions in solution and the pH value.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:   Application    REF:  Page: 25        TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. Describe the three ways in which the body can regulate the removal of H+ ions or a sudden change in pH.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:              Page: 25 | Page: 26

TOP:  Acids, bases, and salts

 

  1. List the three types of lipids in the body and describe the structure and function of each.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:              Page: 27 | Page: 28

TOP:  Lipids

 

  1. Differentiate between DNA and RNA in terms of structure and function.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:   Application    REF:  Page: 29 | Page: 30                         TOP:  Nucleic acids

 

  1. Describe the two different types of lipoproteins in the blood. Explain their possible impact on health.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:              Page: 29

TOP:  Clinical Application: Blood Lipoproteins

 

  1. Explain the difference between structural and functional proteins. Give an example of each.

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:              Page: 28 | Page: 29

TOP:  Proteins

 

  1. Describe the types of carbohydrates. What are the two large molecules that can store carbohydrates?

 

ANS:

(Answers may vary)

 

DIF:   Memorization                                           REF:              Page: 26 |Page: 27

TOP:  Carbohydrates