Test Bank For Theories of Personality Understanding Persons 6th Edition

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Test Bank For Theories of Personality Understanding Persons 6th Edition

 

Sample Chapter Below:

 

Theories of Personality, 6e (Cloninger)

 

 

Chapter 2

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

1) Chapter two begins with a psychoanalytic discussion of Adolf Hitler. According to the author’s

analysis, at what stage was Hitler fixated?

  1. A) oral
  2. B) anal
  3. C) latency
  4. D) genital

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2, p. 20

Question Type: Factual

 

2) In the analysis of Adolf Hitler, to what did the analysts attribute Hitler’s tyrannical rage?

  1. A) His underdeveloped id.
  2. B) His overactive superego.
  3. C) His failure as an artist.
  4. D) His weak/non-existent ego.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2, p. 20

Question Type: Factual

 

3) Which of the following is the least important influence on human thought and behavior, according to

Freud?

  1. A) childhood emotion
  2. B) instincts
  3. C) reason
  4. D) unconscious forces

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1, p. 21

Question Type: Factual

 

4) Freud’s theory challenged our trust in

  1. A) conscious experience.
  2. B) science.
  3. C) therapy.
  4. D) hypnosis.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1, p, 22

Question Type: Factual

 

5) Before he became a psychoanalyst, Freud was a

  1. A) business executive.
  2. B) neurologist.
  3. C) rabbi.
  4. D) singer.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3, p.22

Question Type: Factual

6) The term “psychic determinism” refers to

  1. A) the scientific method.
  2. B) the influence of the unconscious.
  3. C) extra-sensory perception.
  4. D) will power.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2, p. 23

Question Type: Factual

 

7) Freud explained neurotic symptoms according to the principle of

  1. A) psychic determinism.
  2. B) mesmerism.
  3. C) hypnosis.
  4. D) catharsis.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2, p. 23

Question Type: Factual

 

8) Freud’s “iceberg metaphor” illustrates that

  1. A) most people are “cold.”
  2. B) repression requires energy.
  3. C) most of the mind’s processes are unconscious.
  4. D) the same substance can appear in quite different forms.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2, p. 23

Question Type: Conceptual

 

9) The conscious mind is

  1. A) the major component of the personality (according to Freud).
  2. B) experience of which we have awareness.
  3. C) expressed in dreams.
  4. D) repressed.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1, p. 23

Question Type: Factual

 

10) Material that is not in awareness at a particular time, but that can readily be recalled if we try, is

  1. A) unconscious.
  2. B) preconscious.
  3. C) conscious.
  4. D) postconscious.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2, p. 23

Question Type: Factual

 

 

11) Mental processes of which we are chronically unaware are called

  1. A) preconscious.
  2. B) conscious.
  3. C) sublimated.
  4. D) unconscious.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1, pp. 23-24

Question Type: Factual

 

12) According to Freud, a child who has been sexually abused and who cannot remember the experience

  1. A) is psychotic.
  2. B) is lucky, since the event cannot have produced any psychological damage.
  3. C) has suppressed the experience into the preconscious.
  4. D) has repressed the experience into the unconscious.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2, p. 24

Question Type: Conceptual

 

13) Because of an unconscious guilt about what she has said, a woman becomes mute, unable to speak.

This is an example of

  1. A) hypnosis.
  2. B) conversion hysteria.
  3. C) preconsciousness.
  4. D) malingering.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2, p. 24

Question Type: Conceptual

 

14) Hypnosis is best described as

  1. A) a separate state of consciousness.
  2. B) a fraudulent claim.
  3. C) a state of great suggestibility.
  4. D) an epileptic-like seizure.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3, p. 24

Question Type: Factual

 

15) Which of the following is not caused by unconscious forces, according to Freud?

  1. A) psychosis
  2. B) dreams
  3. C) intentional actions
  4. D) forgetting

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1, pp. 24 – 26

Question Type: Factual

 

 

16) Freud praised __________ as “the royal road to the unconscious.”

  1. A) hallucinations
  2. B) dreams
  3. C) hypnosis
  4. D) free association

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2, p, 25

Question Type: Factual

 

17) “Let me introduce today’s topic, psychoanalysis, developed by Dr. FRAUD,” says the instructor. This

error illustrates a

  1. A) countertransference.
  2. B) conversion hysteria.
  3. C) Freudian slip.
  4. D) cathexis.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1, p. 26

Question Type: Conceptual

 

18) A “Freudian slip” is caused by

  1. A) unconscious wishes.
  2. B) childhood trauma.
  3. C) dreams.
  4. D) catharsis.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2, p. 26

Question Type: Factual

 

19) The characteristics of dream work described by Freud do not include

  1. A) Condensation
  2. B) Projection
  3. C) Symbolism
  4. D) Displacement

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2, p. 26

Question Type: Factual

 

20) According to Freud’s hedonic hypothesis, people seek

  1. A) consciousness.
  2. B) pleasure.
  3. C) ego.
  4. D) the opposite-sex parent.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3, p. 27

Question Type: Factual

 

 

21) Researchers have used projective tests to investigate each of the following motives with the exception

of

  1. A) Achievement motives
  2. B) Affiliation motives
  3. C) Intimacy motives
  4. D) All the above

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1, p. 27

Question Type: Factual

 

22) The unconscious is least likely to be revealed through

  1. A) The interpretation of dreams
  2. B) Humor
  3. C) Objective tests
  4. D) Free association

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2, pp. 25 – 27, 38

Question Type: Factual

 

23) The most primitive structure of personality is the

  1. A) id.
  2. B) ego.
  3. C) superego.
  4. D) Oedipus conflict.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1, p. 28

Question Type: Factual

 

24) The energy of personality is called

  1. A) libido.
  2. B) cathexis.
  3. C) homeostasis.
  4. D) sublimation.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2, p. 28

Question Type: Factual

 

25) The two kinds of psychic energy are

  1. A) conscious and unconscious.
  2. B) neurotic and normal.
  3. C) Eros and Thanatos.
  4. D) primary process and secondary process.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2, p. 28

Question Type: Factual

 

 

26) The aim of instincts is

  1. A) mental health.
  2. B) sublimation.
  3. C) tension reduction.
  4. D) unknown.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3, pp. 28 – 29

Question Type: Factual

 

27) The four characteristics of instincts do not include

  1. A) Object
  2. B) Resource
  3. C) Aim
  4. D) Pressure

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2, pp. 28 – 29

Question Type: Factual

 

28) The person or thing in the real world that permits an instinct to be satisfied is termed a(n)

  1. A) aim.
  2. B) object.
  3. C) pressure.
  4. D) source.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2, p. 29

Question Type: Factual

 

29) The id functions according to

  1. A) primary process.
  2. B) secondary process.
  3. C) tertiary process.
  4. D) the reality principle.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2, p. 29

Question Type: Factual

 

30) Which structure of personality is responsible for conscious adaptation to reality?

  1. A) id
  2. B) ego
  3. C) superego
  4. D) preconscious

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1, p. 29 – 30

Question Type: Factual

 

 

31) The ego functions according to the __________ principle.

  1. A) hedonic
  2. B) reality
  3. C) libidinal
  4. D) homeostatic

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2, p. 29

Question Type: Factual

 

32) Which structure of personality corresponds to the “voice of conscience,” warning us to avoid evil?

  1. A) ego
  2. B) id
  3. C) superego
  4. D) hallucination

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1, p. 30

Question Type: Factual

 

33) The superego corresponds to

  1. A) reality.
  2. B) mature ethics.
  3. C) highly developed personal qualities.
  4. D) childish understandings of morality.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3, p. 30

Question Type: Conceptual

 

34) __________ signals that id impulses may break through (overcome repression) and be expressed.

  1. A) Moral anxiety
  2. B) Neurotic anxiety
  3. C) Reality anxiety
  4. D) Hedonic anxiety

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3, p. 30

Question Type: Factual

 

35) The purpose of defense mechanisms is to

  1. A) resolve intra-psychic conflict.
  2. B) preserve life.
  3. C) preserve sleep.
  4. D) signal that the id may take over the personality.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2, p. 31

Question Type: Conceptual

 

 

36) Which of the defense mechanisms listed below is the most primitive?

  1. A) projection
  2. B) denial
  3. C) identification
  4. D) rationalization

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3, p. 31

Question Type: Conceptual

 

37) A person who unconsciously hates a sibling, but consciously feels only love for the sibling, is using

the defense mechanism of

  1. A) projection.
  2. B) isolation.
  3. C) identification.
  4. D) reaction formation.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2, p. 30

Question Type: Conceptual

 

38) In the defense mechanism of __________, the person’s own unacceptable impulse is instead thought

to belong to someone else.

  1. A) projection
  2. B) isolation
  3. C) identification
  4. D) reaction formation

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2, pp. 31 – 32

Question Type: Factual

 

39) A child who is really angry with his or her mother yells at the baby-sitter instead. Which defense

mechanism is this?

  1. A) projection
  2. B) reaction formation
  3. C) isolation
  4. D) displacement

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2, p. 32

Question Type: Conceptual

 

40) A person who borrows or merges his or her identity with someone else, such as a powerful parent, is

using the defense mechanism of

  1. A) identification.
  2. B) projection.
  3. C) reaction formation.
  4. D) rationalization.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2, p. 32

Question Type: Conceptual

 

 

41) A parent who punishes a child because of unconscious aggression, but who gives plausible reasons

(“It will teach the child obedience,” and so forth) is using the defense mechanism of

  1. A) identification.
  2. B) rationalization.
  3. C) projection.
  4. D) denial.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2, p. 32

Question Type: Conceptual

 

42) Which kind of person is most likely to deal with impulses through sublimation?

  1. A) a child
  2. B) a psychotic
  3. C) a neurotic
  4. D) a creative artist

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2, p. 33

Question Type: Conceptual

 

43) George has been diagnosed as having a sexual identity disorder and he is seeking gender-

reassignment surgery. How would psychoanalytic theorists explain George’s desire to voluntarily castrate himself?

  1. A) George is projecting his sexual perversions onto others.
  2. B) George has identified too closely with his mother and therefore he must castrate himself.
  3. C) George is upset with his father and is displacing that anger onto his own sexuality.
  4. D) George’s biology matches that of a woman and that is why he desires the surgery.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3, p. 33

Question Type: Conceptual

 

44) Defense mechanisms can be measured by

  1. A) interviews.
  2. B) projective tests.
  3. C) self-report inventories.
  4. D) all of the above

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2, p. 33

Question Type: Factual

 

45) People with a repressive coping style

  1. A) seldom become anxious.
  2. B) usually outgrow this defensiveness.
  3. C) use negative emotion as a cue to repress or forget material.
  4. D) all of the above.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3, pp. 33-34

Question Type: Factual

 

 

46) What has cross-cultural research examining defense mechanisms found?

  1. A) Although there were some slight differences, samples in the U.S. and Thailand were quite similar in

their use of defense mechanisms.

  1. B) People in Thailand do not display any of the defense mechanisms.
  2. C) Women in both countries used the defense mechanisms, but the men did not.
  3. D) Defense mechanisms vary wildly across cultures.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2, p. 34

Question Type: Factual

 

47) In order of their occurrence, the first three psychosexual stages are:

  1. A) anal, oral, phallic
  2. B) phallic, anal, oral
  3. C) oral, anal, phallic
  4. D) oral, phallic, anal

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1, pp. 34-37

Question Type: Factual

 

48) By age __________, the personality has been formed, according to Freud.

  1. A) two
  2. B) five
  3. C) ten
  4. D) eighteen

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3, p. 35

Question Type: Factual

 

49) Fixation during the oral period typically results in certain oral character traits. Which of the following

is not an oral trait?

  1. A) dependency
  2. B) obstinacy
  3. C) optimism
  4. D) passivity

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3, p. 35

Question Type: Factual

 

50) Optimism, passivity, and dependency are characteristic of the

  1. A) oral character.
  2. B) anal character.
  3. C) phallic character.
  4. D) latent character.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2, p. 35

Question Type: Factual

 

 

51) Orderliness, parsimony, and obstinacy are characteristic of the

  1. A) oral character.
  2. B) anal character.
  3. C) phallic character.
  4. D) genital character.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2, p. 36

Question Type: Factual

 

52) Attitudes toward money are, according to psychoanalytic theory, related to development during the

__________ stage.

  1. A) oral
  2. B) anal
  3. C) phallic
  4. D) latency

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3, p. 36

Question Type: Factual

 

53) During the Oedipal Conflict, according to Freud, what do boys want from their mothers?

  1. A) attention
  2. B) nurturance
  3. C) a sexual relationship
  4. D) a baby sister or brother

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2, p. 36

Question Type: Factual

 

54) During the Oedipal stage, boys are afraid of

  1. A) all women.
  2. B) their mothers.
  3. C) castration.
  4. D) failure in school.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1, p. 36

Question Type: Factual

 

55) During the phallic period, a boy may develop

  1. A) a superego.
  2. B) male sex-typing.
  3. C) an Oedipus complex.
  4. D) all of the above.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2, p. 36

Question Type: Factual

 

 

56) Sex roles, according to Freud, are learned at about age

  1. A) two.
  2. B) four.
  3. C) ten.
  4. D) fourteen.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3, pp. 36-37

Question Type: Factual

 

57) Male and female superego development are different, according to Freud, because

  1. A) fathers usually spend little time at home.
  2. B) girls usually have better language skills than boys.
  3. C) parents usually want to have a son, rather than a daughter.
  4. D) boys have penises, but girls don’t.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2, pp. 36-37

Question Type: Factual

 

58) Normal feminine development, according to Freud, results in the traits of

  1. A) nurturance and warmth.
  2. B) happiness and enthusiasm.
  3. C) optimism and generosity.
  4. D) passivity and masochism.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3, pp. 36-37

Question Type: Factual

 

59) According to Freud’s latest thinking, in the Electra phase

  1. A) young girls fantasize being their fathers’ lovers.
  2. B) girls are often seduced by their fathers.
  3. C) girls as well as boys are interested in science.
  4. D) girls are closer to their mothers than to their fathers.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3, p. 37

Question Type: Factual

 

60) Before he abandoned the seduction hypothesis, Freud believed that psychiatric maladjustment in his

female patients was caused by

  1. A) incest between daughters and their fathers.
  2. B) excessive talk about adult sexuality in the presence of children.
  3. C) seduction of children by strangers.
  4. D) fear of sexual temptations.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2, p. 37

Question Type: Factual

 

 

61) Psychoanalytic theory says that fixation during the phallic period results in problems with

  1. A) sexual promiscuity.
  2. B) homosexuality.
  3. C) superego formation.
  4. D) all of the above

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3, p. 37

Question Type: Factual

 

62) Freud described middle childhood as a time of

  1. A) important psychosexual development.
  2. B) conflict with the parents.
  3. C) peer group interaction.
  4. D) relative calm for the sexual instincts.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2, p. 37

Question Type: Factual

 

63) The most healthy, developed personality is called a(n) __________ in Freudian theory.

  1. A) anal character
  2. B) genital character
  3. C) oral character
  4. D) phallic character

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2, pp. 37 – 38

Question Type: Factual

 

64) Freud’s criterion of mental health is

  1. A) love and work.
  2. B) frequency of dreaming.
  3. C) willingness to undergo psychoanalysis.
  4. D) wealth.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2, p. 38

Question Type: Factual

 

65) The basic technique of psychoanalysis is

  1. A) dream interpretation.
  2. B) free association.
  3. C) transference.
  4. D) catharsis.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2, p. 38

Question Type: Factual

 

 

66) During psychoanalytic treatment, buried feelings may emerge from the unconscious. This is called

  1. A) cathexis.
  2. B) catharsis.
  3. C) free association.
  4. D) transference.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2, p. 38

Question Type: Factual

 

67) __________ refers to awareness of one’s true motivations, and is achieved in psychoanalytic

treatment.

  1. A) Insight
  2. B) Intellectualization
  3. C) Rationalization
  4. D) Interpretation

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1, p. 38

Question Type: Factual

 

68) If a patient falls in love with her (or his) psychoanalyst, she (or he) is probably experiencing

  1. A) sublimation.
  2. B) countertransference.
  3. C) transference.
  4. D) catharsis.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2, p. 38

Question Type: Conceptual

 

69) If a psychoanalyst falls in love with his (or her) patient, he (or she) is probably experiencing

  1. A) transference.
  2. B) countertransference.
  3. C) free association.
  4. D) seduction.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2, p. 38

Question Type: Conceptual

 

70) According to your text, what does research say about the effectiveness of psychoanalytic treatment?

  1. A) It is not effective.
  2. B) It is less effective than other therapies, but better than no treatment.
  3. C) Results are mixed compared to other treatment but is shown to be more effective for psychosomatic

disorders.

  1. D) It is generally as effective as other treatments, and probably more effective for phobias.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3, p. 38

Question Type: Factual

 

 

71) The recovered memory controversy is concerned with memories

  1. A) of prenatal experience.
  2. B) conveyed from another person by telepathic powers.
  3. C) of childhood sexual abuse that have troubled people throughout their lives.
  4. D) of childhood sexual abuse that are not recalled until therapy.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2, p. 39

Question Type: Factual

 

72) As a scientific theory, psychoanalysis

  1. A) has been well supported by many experimental studies.
  2. B) has been supported in its statements about development but not about therapy.
  3. C) fails to make clear, verifiable predictions.
  4. D) uses highly reliable measurement, such as projective tests.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2, p. 39

Question Type: Factual

 

73) Silverman tested psychoanalytic research using the technique of

  1. A) dream interpretation.
  2. B) Rorschach inkblot tests.
  3. C) hypnosis.
  4. D) subliminal psychodynamic activation.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3, p. 40

Question Type: Factual

 

74) The phrase “Mommy and I are one” generally has __________ effects, according to Silverman’s

experiments.

  1. A) beneficial
  2. B) harmful
  3. C) psychosomatic
  4. D) no

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2, p. 40

Question Type: Factual

 

75) Which statement best describes the current cognitive interpretation of the unconscious?

  1. A) Some material is not conscious because it was never the focus of attention.
  2. B) Material is unconscious if conscious awareness would be too anxiety provoking.
  3. C) Material is unconscious if it is dynamically related to fixations.
  4. D) Material becomes unconscious if a person was tired when events occurred.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2, pp. 40-41

Question Type: Conceptual

 

 

76) Which statement best describes explanations of the unconscious?

  1. A) Both Freud and modern theorists propose a dynamic unconscious.
  2. B) Both Freud and modern theorists propose a cognitive unconscious.
  3. C) Freud proposed a dynamic unconscious; modern theorists propose a cognitive unconscious.
  4. D) Freud proposed a cognitive unconscious; modern theorists propose a dynamic unconscious.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2, p. 41

Question Type: Conceptual

 

True/False

 

77) Psychoanalysts believe that Adolf Hitler had an unresolved Oedipus Complex wherein he hated his

abusive father and loved his overprotective mother.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 2, p. 20

Question Type: Factual

 

78) In his analysis of Hitler, Henry Murray suggested that Hitler had all of the symptoms of paranoid

schizophrenia.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 2, p. 20

Question Type: Factual

 

79) In the analysis of Adolf Hitler, Henry Murray suggested that Hitler had higher levels of eros energy

than thanatos energy.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 2, pp. 20 – 21

Question Type: Factual

 

80) Material that has been repressed is said to be “unconscious.”

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 1, pp. 23 – 24

Question Type: Factual

 

81) People generally identify with their unconscious mental processes.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 2, p. 24

Question Type: Factual

 

82) Hypnosis has been shown to be able to help treat a number of conditions including asthma, warts, psoriasis, and eating disorders.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 1, p. 24

Question Type: Factual

 

83) According to Freud, in cases of “conversion hysteria,” physical symptoms (paralysis, deafness, tics,

and so forth) are caused by unconscious forces.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 2, p. 24

Question Type: Factual

 

84) “Glove anesthesia” has been shown to result from neurological damage.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 2, p. 24

Question Type: Factual

 

85) Hypnosis is a separate brain state, not influenced by social factors.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 2, p. 25

Question Type: Factual

 

86) Freud considered psychosis to be the experiencing of the unconscious in the raw.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 2, p. 25

Question Type: Factual

 

87) The hidden meaning underlying dream symbols is called the “manifest content” of a dream.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 2, p. 25

Question Type: Factual

 

88) Freud did not believe that further information apart from the dream itself was necessary for the dreams interpretation.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 2, p. 26

Question Type: Factual

 

89) The id functions according to the pleasure principle.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 1, p. 28

Question Type: Factual

 

90) Thanatos is “the death instinct.”

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 2, p. 28

Question Type: Factual

 

91) Source, pressure, aim, and object are the four characteristics of instincts.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 2, pp. 28 – 29

Question Type: Factual

 

92) In humans, the object of an instinct is determined by biological factors and is not changed by

experience.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 2, p. 29

Question Type: Factual

 

 

93) The ego operates according to the pleasure principle.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 1, p. 29

Question Type: Factual

 

94) The ego functions according to the reality principle.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 1, p. 29

Question Type: Factual

 

95) The superego functions according to primary process.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 2, p. 30

Question Type: Factual

 

96) The “ego ideal” is an image of what a person would like to be.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 2, p. 30

Question Type: Factual

 

97) The id, ego, and superego coexist peacefully.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 1, p. 30

Question Type: Conceptual

 

98) Repression of unacceptable thoughts or impulses requires psychic energy.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 2, p. 30

Question Type: Conceptual

 

99) A person who uses projection as a defense mechanism perceives other people as having characteristics (such as dishonesty) that are actually the person’s own unconscious wishes.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 2, pp. 31 – 32

Question Type: Conceptual

 

100) Cultural scapegoats can be unfairly accused of immoral acts because of the defense mechanism of projection.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 3, p. 32

Question Type: Factual

 

101) An overweight person who defends his or her overeating with many reasons (“I need the energy,” “I

need the vitamins,” and so forth) is using the defense mechanism of rationalization.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 3, p. 32

Question Type: Conceptual

 

 

102) The most desirable and healthy way of dealing with unacceptable impulses is intellectualization.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 2, p. 33

Question Type: Factual

 

103) Defense mechanisms cannot be measured by psychological tests.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 3, p. 33

Question Type: Factual

 

104) Psychoanalytic theory suggests that people desiring sexual reassignment surgery are displacing

childhood sexual trauma.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 2, p. 33

Question Type: Factual

 

105) Cross-cultural research suggests that the defense mechanisms are largely universal.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 2, p. 34

Question Type: Factual

 

106) Fixation can result from a child’s early experience of psychic trauma

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 3, p. 35

Question Type: Factual

 

107) The first psychosexual stage is the anal stage.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 1, pp. 34 – 35

Question Type: Factual

 

108) As the infant develops from the oral erotic to the oral sadistic phase, he or she becomes increasingly

passive.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 3, p. 35

Question Type: Factual

 

109) Fixation in the oral period often results in the character trait of dependency.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 3, p. 35

Question Type: Factual

 

110) The anal period occurs when the child is two and three years old.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 1, p. 35

Question Type: Factual

 

111) Fixation at the anal phase may result in conflicts over issues of control.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: 3, p. 36

Question Type: Factual

112) According to Freud, girls differ from boys in that they do not want a sexual union with the opposite

sex parent during the phallic period.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 2, pp. 36 – 37

Question Type: Conceptual

 

113) Freud thought that it was normal and healthy for a woman to prefer a career to motherhood.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 2, pp. 36 – 37

Question Type: Conceptual

 

114) It has been conclusively demonstrated that childhood seduction causes hysteria.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 2, p. 37

Question Type: Factual

 

115) In psychoanalytic treatment, the patient is instructed to say only things that are sensible and rational,

in order to practice good ego skills.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: 1, p. 38

Question Type: Conceptual

 

Essay

116) Your book provides an in-depth Freudian analysis of Adolf Hitler. Summarize the analysis and

describe how psychoanalytic theory explains Hitler’s behavior.

Difficulty: 3, pp. 19 – 21

 

117) Discuss why the time in which Freud practiced and theorized should be considered when evaluating his ideas.

Difficulty: 3, p. 22

 

118) Explain Freud’s concept of psychic determinism.  Give two hypothetical examples and explain them

in terms of psychic determinism.

Difficulty: 2, p. 23

 

119) Discuss the therapeutic benefits of hypnosis and the different theories explaining hypnosis.

Difficulty: 3, pp. 24 – 25

 

120) Alex dreams that he has a brand new baseball bat, bigger than any he has had before.  Discuss this

dream from a Freudian perspective.  In your answer, include the manifest content of the dream and

the latent content of the dream.

Difficulty: 2, pp. 25 – 26

 

121) Discuss the role of humor in the expression of the unconscious.

Difficulty: 2, pp. 26 – 27

 

122) List and discuss the four basic aspects of instincts.

Difficulty: 3, pp. 28 – 29

 

123) Explain the functions of the id, the superego, and the ego.

Difficulty: 1, pp. 28 – 30

 

124) What is intrapsychic conflict?  Describe the roles of the id, the ego, and the superego in this conflict.

Difficulty: 3, p. 30

 

125) What is the purpose of defense mechanisms?  List three defense mechanisms, and give an example

of each.

Difficulty: 2, pp. 31 – 33

 

126) Explain what motivates an artist to paint, according to Freudian theory.

Difficulty: 2, p. 33

 

121) List the five psychosexual stages of development.  What development occurs in each of the first three stages?

Difficulty: 2, pp. 34 – 38

 

122) Summarize and discuss Freud’s theory of the personality differences between males and females.

Difficulty: 2, pp. 36 – 37

 

123) Discuss the controversy over Freud’s seduction hypothesis.

Difficulty: 3, p. 37

 

124) Describe psychoanalytic treatment.

Difficulty: 2, pp. 38 – 39

 

125) What is the recovered memory controversy? What does available scientific evidence indicate?

Difficulty: 3, p. 39

 

126) Describe empirical evidence that tests Freud’s theory.

Difficulty: 2, pp. 39 – 40

 

127) Discuss Silverman’s experiments on subliminal psychodynamic activation.

Difficulty: 3, p. 40

 

128) Discuss the concept of nonconscious cognition and how it differs from Freud’s idea of the unconscious.

Difficulty: 3, pp. 40 – 41

 

 

Name:________________________________

 

Chapter 2 – Quick Quiz

 

1) Mental processes of which we are chronically unaware are called

  1. A) preconscious.
  2. B) conscious.
  3. C) sublimated.
  4. D) unconscious.

 

2) The most primitive structure of personality is the

  1. A) id.
  2. B) ego.
  3. C) superego.
  4. D) Oedipus conflict.

 

3) Which structure of personality is responsible for conscious adaptation to reality?

  1. A) id
  2. B) ego
  3. C) superego
  4. D) preconscious

 

4) Which structure of personality corresponds to the “voice of conscience,” warning us to avoid evil?

  1. A) ego
  2. B) id
  3. C) superego
  4. D) hallucination

 

5) The purpose of defense mechanisms is to

  1. A) resolve intrapsychic conflict.
  2. B) preserve life.
  3. C) preserve sleep.
  4. D) signal that the id may take over the personality.

 

6) In order of their occurrence, the first three psychosexual stages are:

  1. A) anal, oral, phallic.
  2. B) phallic, anal, oral.
  3. C) oral, anal, phallic.
  4. D) oral, phallic, anal.

 

7) During the Oedipal stage, boys are afraid of

  1. A) all women.
  2. B) their mothers.
  3. C) castration.
  4. D) failure in school.

 

8) According to Freud’s latest thinking, in the Electra phase

  1. A) young girls fantasize being their fathers’ lovers.
  2. B) girls are often seduced by their fathers.
  3. C) girls as well as boys are interested in science.
  4. D) girls are closer to their mothers than to their fathers.

9) Freud’s criterion of mental health is

  1. A) love and work.
  2. B) frequency of dreaming.
  3. C) willingness to undergo psychoanalysis.
  4. D) wealth.

 

10) During psychoanalytic treatment, buried feelings may emerge from the unconscious. This is called

  1. A) cathexis.
  2. B) catharsis.
  3. C) free association.
  4. D) transference.

 

 

Answer Key

Chapter 2 – Quick Quiz

  1. Answer: D

Difficulty: 1, pp. 23 – 24

Question Type: Factual

 

  1. Answer: A

Difficulty: 1, p. 28

Question Type: Factual

 

  1. Answer: B

Difficulty: 1, p. 29

Question Type: Factual

 

  1. Answer: C

Difficulty: 1, p. 30

Question Type: Factual

 

  1. Answer: A

Difficulty: 2, p. 30

Question Type: Conceptual

 

  1. Answer: C

Difficulty: 1, p. 34

Question Type: Factual

 

  1. Answer: C

Difficulty: 1, p. 36

Question Type: Factual

 

  1. Answer: A

Difficulty: 3, pp. 36 – 37

Question Type: Factual

 

  1. Answer: A

Difficulty: 2, p. 38

Question Type: Factual

 

  1. Answer: B

Difficulty: 2, p. 38

Question Type: Factual