Test Bank For The World of Psychology 8th Canadian Edition

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Test Bank For The World of Psychology 8th Canadian Edition

 

Sample Chapter Below:

 

Chapter 4 – States of Consciousness

 

1) The continuous stream of perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and sensations of which we are aware is referred to as

  1. behaviour analysis.
  2. unconscious processing.
  3. automatic processing.
  4. consciousness.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Consciousness is defined as the continuous flow of perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and sensations that fill our awareness.

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

2) Which of the following best defines consciousness?

  1. wakefulness
  2. rationality
  3. awareness
  4. receptiveness

 

Answer: c

Correct: Consciousness is defined as the continuous flow of perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and sensations that fill our awareness.

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

3) The subjective nature of consciousness has been recently examined through objective studies by psychologists using such tools as

  1. the MRI and aptitude tests.
  2. the CT scan and the EEG.
  3. psychotherapy and projective tests.
  4. legal and illicit drugs.

 

Answer: b

Correct: The CT scan and the EEG have provided observations of the brain during episodes of sleep and hypnosis.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

4) The most fundamental altered state is

  1. sleep.
  2. states reached through meditation.
  3. alcohol induced.
  4. a drug-induced state.

 

Answer: a

Correct: We spend approximately one-third of our lives in the altered state of consciousness known as sleep.

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

5) Circadian rhythms are controlled largely by the

  1. calendar.
  2. pituitary gland.
  3. brain.
  4. heart.

 

Answer: c

Correct: Daily fluctuations in bodily functions constitute our circadian rhythms and are controlled by the brain.

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

6) Which of the following is an example of an ultradian rhythm?

  1. bloodpressure
  2. menstruation
  3. hunger
  4. the body’s response to medications

 

Answer: c

Correct: Ultradian rhythms are biological patterns that occur more than once a day.Hunger is the only cycle listed that occurs more than once per day.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

7) Circadian rhythms commonly refer to physiological cycles that are approximately ____ long.

  1. 24 hours
  2. 30 days
  3. 7 days
  4. 72 hours

 

Answer: a

Correct: Circadian rhythms refer to daily fluctuations and therefore typically occur within a 24-hour cycle.

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

8) Which of the following does not appear to follow a circadian rhythm?

  1. menstruation
  2. appetite
  3. secretion of hormones
  4. blood pressure and heart rate

 

Answer: a

Correct: This is the one pattern of the four options that does not follow the 24-hour cycle that defines a circadian rhythm.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

9) The daily fluctuations in body temperature and the sleep-wakefulness cycle are called

  1. infradian rhythms.
  2. ultradian rhythms.
  3. alpha rhythms.
  4. circadian rhythms.

 

Answer: d

Correct: These are two of the many patterns of fluctuations one experiences during a typical 24-hour cycle known as a circadian rhythm.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

10) The two circadian rhythms which are most relevant to the study of sleep are patterns of alertness and

  1. blood pressure.
  2. heart rate.
  3. body temperature.
  4. secretion of hormones.

 

Answer: c

Correct: In studying circadian rhythms and their effects on sleep, the main areas of focus are alertness and body temperature, as these two are closely tied to each other and to sleep patterns.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

11) For most people, 2:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. is a time of day when they

  1. are less alert than during the rest of the day.
  2. are especially prone to sexual fantasies.
  3. are least likely to be able to sleep.
  4. are at their intellectual peak.

 

Answer: a

Correct: In the natural highs and lows of many bodily functions, alertness is at a relative low between 2:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m., when compared to the rest of the daytime hours.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

12) In addition to circadian rhythms, other biological rhythms influence human functioning. Most noteworthy among these are __________________

  1. ultradian and infradian rhythms.
  2. complex and simple rhythms.
  3. gastrointestinal rhythms.
  4. metabolic rhythms.

 

Answer: a

Correct: Some patterns of fluctuation are shorter and some are longer than the 24-hour circadian rhythm. These include ultradian and infradian rhythms, respectively.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

13) All of the following are considered to be part of infradian rhythms,except

  1. heartbeats.
  2. alertness.
  3. hunger.
  4. menstruation.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Infradian patterns repeat more than once through a 24-hour cycle. Of the four choices, only menstruation does not repeat its cycle more than once through the day.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

14) A good example of an ultradian rhythm is

  1. hunger.
  2. eye blinking.
  3. sleep.
  4. menstruation.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Ultradian rhythms exceed the 24-hour cycle. Of the four options listed, only menstruation fits that criterion.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

15) The discomfort that results from jet lag is caused by disruption of

  1. active consciousness.
  2. circadian rhythms.
  3. the receptive cycle.
  4. the vestibular system.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Because the body’s biological clock is disrupted when we cross time zones, this also impacts our circadian rhythms.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 99

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2 Explain the importance of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

 

16) The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is located in the brain’s ________.

  1. cortex
  2. parietal lobe
  3. hypothalamus
  4. hippocampus

 

Answer: c

Correct: It is a very small region of the hypothalamus that responds to light.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.2 Explain the importance of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

 

17) The SCN acts on this information by signalling the________, located in the centre of the brain.

  1. hippocampus
  2. central lobe
  3. pineal gland
  4. adrenal gland

 

Answer: c

Correct: The pineal gland then releases melatonin.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 99

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.2 Explain the importance of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

 

18) Research suggests all of the following about jet lag,exceptthat

  1. it can cause permanent memory loss.
  2. it is made worse by exposure to melatonin.
  3. it can be aided by exposure to bright light during the early morning hours.
  4. it can be avoided to a certain degree by altering sleep patterns before travel.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Melatonin is a treatment for jet lag.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 99

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.2 Explain the importance of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

 

19) Researchers believe that the suprachiasmatic nucleus acts as

  1. our biological clock.
  2. the regulator of our heart rate.
  3. a trigger for thirst and hunger sensations.
  4. the source of inner awareness of time.

 

Answer: a

Correct: The suprachiasmatic nucleus is activated by light signals coming from the optic nerve. In the absence of light signals, the SCN signals the pineal gland, which releases melatonin during the darkest hours, which induces sleep.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 99

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2 Explain the importance of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

 

20) What is regarded as the physical site of our biological clock?

  1. the thalamus
  2. the pineal gland
  3. the suprachiasmatic nucleus
  4. the heart

 

Answer: c

Correct: The suprachiasmatic nucleus is activated by light signals coming from the optic nerve. In the absence of light signals, the SCN signals the pineal gland, which releases melatonin during the darkest hours, which induces sleep.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 99

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2 Explain the importance of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

 

21) Simone flew from Edmonton, Alberta, to London,England, two days ago. Since then, she has been feeling sleepy during the day but has had difficulty sleeping during the night. The probable reason for her difficulty is that

  1. airline travel has temporarily disrupted her hypothalamus.
  2. she is exhausted from sight-seeing.
  3. her body clock is not synchronized with clock time.
  4. she has eaten meals at odd hours, disrupting her digestive system.

 

Answer: c

Correct: Because the body’s biological clock is disrupted when we cross time zones, this also impacts our circadian rhythms—one of the most noteworthy being sleep patterns.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 99

Topic: Applied

Objective: 4.2 Explain the importance of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

 

22) Which of the following is an effective strategy for combating jetlag?

  1. Skipping an extra night’s sleep after arriving at your destination.
  2. Avoiding sunlight in the morning and exposure to bright light in the evening.
  3. Gradually advancing your sleep schedule by an hour a night before you leave home.
  4. The consistent use of caffeine throughout the day.

 

Answer: c

Correct: Research suggests that gradually advancing your sleep schedule by an hour a night before leaving home can help adjust the circadian rhythm and prevent jetlag.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 99

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2 Explain the importance of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

 

23) Disruption of circadian rhythms is most likely to be a long-term problem for people who

  1. travel abroad every summer.
  2. work rotating shifts.
  3. don’t go to sleep and wake up at approximately the same time every day.
  4. have an inner-ear infection.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Like travel across time zones, shift work also disrupts the normal circadian rhythms by disturbing our biological clock.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 99

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.3 Describe the problems associated with shift work.

 

24) All of the following statements are true of shift workers,except that

  1. they have more digestive problems.
  2. they perk up during their subjective night.
  3. they use more caffeine and alcohol.
  4. they sleep fewer hours.

 

Answer: b

Correct: During subjective night, our biological clock is telling us to go to sleep. Shift workers are no different in this regard.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 100

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.3 Describe the problems associated with shift work.

 

25) The negative impacts of shift work

  1. are typically resolved within three months of resuming normal sleep patterns.
  2. are usually reversed after one full night of normal sleep.
  3. are usually reversed after three consecutive nights of normal sleep.
  4. can last for years, and some effects may be permanent.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Some effects of chronic circadian rhythm disruption, such as memory loss in airline pilots and flight attendants, may be permanent. Other effects of shift work have been observed to last for months or years after shift work ends.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 99

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.3 Describe the problems associated with shift work.

 

26) All of the following help shift workers feel better,except

  1. a drug called modafinil.
  2. eating a large meal before, during, and immediately after a night shift.
  3. brief naps during each shift.
  4. light exposure during the last four hours of sleep.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Because the body naturally slows down during the night, digestion does not work at optimum levels at this time, thus necessitating the need for lighter food consumption when working the night shift.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 100

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.3 Describe the problems associated with shift work.

 

27) Whichof the following statements is nottrue about subjective night?

  1. The urge to sleep is greatest.
  2. Energy and efficiency are at their lowest points.
  3. Productivity diminishes.
  4. Body temperature is at its highest.

Correct: Body temperature naturally drops during subjective night.

 

Answer: d

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 100

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.3 Describe the problems associated with shift work.

 

28) Research has shown that the hour change during daylight savings time

  1. is a popular travel day because of its effects on jet-lag.
  2. is associated with increased traffic accidents and deaths.
  3. is associated with an increased rate of violent crime.
  4. has no significant effects on behaviour.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Research shows the one-hour sleep loss we experience when we put our clocks forward in the spring for daylight saving time is associatedwith a significant increase in traffic accidents and deaths.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 100

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.3 Describe the problems associated with shift work.

 

29) In order to reduce the impact of circadian rhythm disruption, light masks should be used

  1. for the entire sleep session.
  2. during the last four hours of a sleep session.
  3. during the first four hours of a sleep session.
  4. For the four hours just prior to a sleep session.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Light masks expose the person sleeping to bright light through the eyelids.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 100

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.3 Describe the problems associated with shift work.

 

30) Your company is creating a new rotating night shift for its workers. How would you advise them to proceed in order to reduce the risks associated with circadian rhythm disruption?

  1. Make sure that night shifts always span the entire night.
  2. Install a free coffee machine for the workers to use when the feel sleepy.
  3. Rotate shifts every night by at least 6 hours, so that no worker is left on the night shift for very long.
  4. Allow a break for workers to have a brief nap during their shifts.

 

 

Answer: d

Correct: Brief nap periods during each shift help sleepy workers adjust to rotating shifts.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 100

Topic: Applied

Objective: 4.3 Describe the problems associated with shift work.

 

31) Research suggests that problems with night shifts can be overcome by

  1. higher personnel turnover.
  2. exposure to periods of high light while working.
  3. asking for volunteers.
  4. the playing of soft music in the workplace.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Light exposure is believed to help reset the biological clock to combat the disruption to the circadian rhythms associated with shift work.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 100

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.3 Describe the problems associated with shift work.

 

32) All of the following are believed to decrease problems associated with working night shifts, except

  1. staying awake for 24 hours after a night shift by increasing caffeine intake.
  2. exposure to bright light during the last four hours of sleep.
  3. use of a wakefulness drug called modafinil.
  4. brief nap periods during a shift, where possible.

 

Answer: a

Correct: All of the three remaining options for this item are supported by research that suggests they may minimize the difficulties associated with shift work. No research has suggested that staying awake for 24 hours is a viable strategy to alleviate problems with shift work.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 100

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.3 Describe the problems associated with shift work.

 

33) Early research on sleep included monitoring subjects in all of the following areas except

  1. chin-muscle tension.
  2. heart and respiration rates.
  3. eye movements.
  4. large-muscle twitches.

 

Answer: d

Correct: In early research on sleep, subjects were measured on all areas in the remaining three options, but not on large-muscle twitches.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 101

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.4 Define and compare NREM and REM sleep.

 

34) As a person shifts from a waking state to being asleep,

  1. heart rate gradually increases.
  2. blood pressure rapidly increases.
  3. brain activity decreases.
  4. respiration rates increase slowly.

 

Answer: c

Correct: In the early stages of sleep, as we gradually leave the waking state, our level of brain activity decreases.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 101

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.4 Define and compare NREM and REM sleep.

 

35) How many different stages of NREM sleep have been identified?

  1. two
  2. three
  3. one
  4. four

Correct: There are known to be four stages of non-REM sleep.

 

Answer: d

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 101

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.4 Define and compare NREM and REM sleep.

 

36) Which of the following is characteristic of REM sleep?

  1. delta waves
  2. increased brain temperature
  3. activation of large muscles
  4. decrease in adrenaline

 

Answer: b

Correct: Among the many physiological changes that occur during REM sleep is a rise in brain temperature rises.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 101

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.4 Define and compare NREM and REM sleep.

 

37) Which of the following occurs during REM sleep?

  1. slower and irregular respiration
  2. lower blood pressure
  3. paralysis of the large muscles
  4. decreased brain activity

 

Answer: c

Correct: While the internal systems and brain are activated during REM sleep as though an emergency is occurring, the large muscles are essentially paralyzed.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 101

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.4 Define and compare NREM and REM sleep.

 

38) Which of the following is not typical of REM sleep?

  1. paralysis of large muscles
  2. rapid eye movements
  3. slow, regular respiration and heart rate
  4. dreaming

 

Answer: c

Correct: The internal systems and brain are activated during REM sleep as though an emergency is occurring. As a result, breathing and heart rate are usually hastened during REM sleep.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 101

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.4 Define and compare NREM and REM sleep.

 

39) Which of the following is more typical of NREM than REM sleep?

  1. fast, regular respiration and heart rate
  2. vivid dreams
  3. eye movements
  4. some bodily movement

 

Answer: d

Correct: During REM sleep, the large muscles are essentially paralyzed.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 101

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.4 Define and compare NREM and REM sleep.

 

40) Which statement is the best description of sleep cycles in normal sleep?

  1. Each consists of four stages of REM sleep followed by NREM sleep.
  2. Each consists of one or more stages of NREM sleep.
  3. Each consists of one or more stages of NREM sleep followed by REM sleep.
  4. Each consists of one or more stages of REM sleep.

 

Answer: c

Correct: The sleep cycle is such that we pass through some stages more than once before reaching REM sleep.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.4 Define and compare NREM and REM sleep.

 

41) The stage of sleep in which most people spend the least amount of time  during the night is

  1. Stage 2.
  2. Stage 3.
  3. Stage 1.
  4. REM.

 

Answer: c

Correct: We pass from wakefulness into Stage 1 usually only once in the night, unless we are awakened. It is a brief stage and only occurs while we are entering the sleep state.

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.5 Describe the pattern of sleep cycles.

 

42) The brain waves that occur in Stage 4 sleep are primarily

  1. beta waves.
  2. alpha waves.
  3. delta waves.
  4. theta waves.

 

Answer: c

Correct: Delta waves signify the deepest level of sleep, which characterizes Stage 4.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.5 Describe the pattern of sleep cycles.

 

43) A sleeping person is most easily awakened from

  1. Stage 2 sleep.
  2. Stage 3 sleep.
  3. Stage 1 sleep.
  4. Stage 4 sleep.

 

Answer: c

Correct: The lightest sleep occurs during Stage 1, which is why we are most easily awakened from this stage.

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.5 Describe the pattern of sleep cycles.

 

44) The deepest sleep is called

  1. Stage 4.
  2. Stage 3.
  3. Stage 2.
  4. Stage 1.

 

Answer: a

Correct: Delta waves signify the deepest level of sleep, when a person is also hardest to awaken.

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.5 Describe the pattern of sleep cycles.

 

45) About 50% of a night’s sleep is spent in

  1. Stage 2 sleep.
  2. Stage 4 sleep.
  3. Stage 3 sleep.
  4. Stage 1 sleep.

 

Answer: a

Correct: The other 50% is distributed across the other stages.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.5 Describe the pattern of sleep cycles.

 

46) Stage 4 sleep begins when

  1. dreams begin.
  2. more than 50 percent of brain activity is delta waves.
  3. delta waves begin to appear.
  4. one first falls asleep.

 

Answer: b

Correct: EEG data revealing more than 50 percent delta waves has been shown to correspond to Stage 4 sleep.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.5 Describe the pattern of sleep cycles.

 

47) Sleep cycles last approximately

  1. 45 minutes.
  2. 60 minutes.
  3. 90 minutes.
  4. 100 minutes.

 

Answer: c

Correct: During each sleep cycle, which lasts about 90 minutes, we have one or more stages of NREM sleep followed by a period of REM sleep.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.5 Describe the pattern of sleep cycles.

 

48) Stage 3 is known as the beginning of

  1. slow-wave sleep.
  2. REM sleep.
  3. the sleep cycle.
  4. active sleep.

 

Answer: a

Correct: Stage 3 marks the beginning of slow-wavesleep, or deep sleep, in which delta waves begin to appear in the EEG.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.5 Describe the pattern of sleep cycles.

 

49) After the first two sleep cycles, the sleeper will spend the rest of the night

  1. dreaming.
  2. alternating between stage 2 and REM sleep.
  3. in slow-wave sleep.
  4. in Stages 2 and 3.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Only the first few sleep cycles in the night include Stages 2, 3, and 4. As the night progresses, the sleeper only experiences Stage 2 sleep and REM.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 102-103

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.5 Describe the pattern of sleep cycles.

 

50) Compared to the first two sleep cycles, sleep cycles later in the night are characterized by less

  1. REM sleep.
  2. dreaming.
  3. Stage 2 sleep.
  4. slow-wave sleep.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Only the first few sleep cycles in the night include stages 2, 3, and 4. As the night progresses, the sleeper only experiences Stage 2 sleep and REM.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.5 Describe the pattern of sleep cycles.

 

51) Which age group has the most difficulty sleeping, the most awakenings, and the lightest sleep?

  1. infants
  2. young adults
  3. adolescents
  4. the elderly

 

Answer: d

Correct: As humans age, they tend to sleep fewer hours, and the sleep they do get is characterized by more frequent awakenings and difficulties returning to sleep.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.6 Explain how age influences sleep.

 

52) Which age group gets the most sleep in a typical 24-hour cycle?

  1. adults
  2. infants and young children
  3. the elderly
  4. teenagers

 

Answer: b

Correct: Infants and children get the most sleep, with the longest periods of REM and deepest sleep of all age groups.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.6 Explain how age influences sleep.

 

53) Eunice is 55 years old. Compared to when she was 35, if her sleep patterns have been typical, she will most likely experience which of the following?

  1. more frequent, but shorter periods of awakening during the night
  2. lighter sleep
  3. deeper sleep
  4. fewer awakenings in the night

 

Answer: b

Correct: As we age, we do not spend as many hours in deep sleep.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Applied

Objective: 4.6 Explain how age influences sleep.

 

54) Harriet is 85 years old. She finds her sleep at night to be lighter and less satisfying. This shouldbe considered

  1. typical for adolescence.
  2. a sign of terminal decline.
  3. infantile sleep pattern syndrome.
  4. normal.

 

Answer: d

Correct: The elderly tend to have multiple awakenings in the night, with greater difficulty returning to sleep; they also tend to be light sleepers.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Applied

Objective: 4.6 Explain how age influences sleep.

 

55) In terms of sleep, adolescents

  1. have the same sleep patterns as the elderly.
  2. typically require two more hours of sleep per night than they usually get.
  3. actually have the most problem in going to sleep.
  4. sleep longer hours than infants.

 

Answer: b

Correct: On average, teenagers need about two hours more sleep than they are getting, in order to meet the challenges of their daytime hours.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.6 Explain how age influences sleep.

 

56) Which age group is most likely to fall asleep easily, sleep soundly for more than eight hours, and feel awake and alert during the day?

  1. children from age six to puberty
  2. adolescents
  3. the elderly
  4. infants

 

Answer: a

Correct: The most “efficient” sleepers are children from age six to puberty, who fall asleep quickly, sleep soundly through the night, and get an adequate number of hours of sleep.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.6 Explain how age influences sleep.

 

57) Which of the following groups spends many hours in bed, but is the least likely to experience satisfying sleep?

  1. children from six to puberty
  2. the elderly
  3. adolescents
  4. infants and young children

 

Answer: b

Correct: Though the elderly need rest, and therefore spend more hours in bed, their sleep is marked by frequent awakenings through the night, and very light sleep.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.6 Explain how age influences sleep.

 

58) Which of the following groups has the longest sleep time and the highest percentage of REM sleep?

  1. children from six to puberty
  2. infants and young children
  3. adults
  4. adolescents

 

Answer: b

Correct: Infants and children get the most sleep, with the longest periods of REM and deep sleep of all age groups.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.6 Explain how age influences sleep.

 

59) Which of the following groups has the most REM sleep?

  1. the elderly
  2. adolescents
  3. infants and young children
  4. children from six to puberty

 

Answer: c

Correct: Infants and children get the most sleep, with the longest periods of REM and deep sleep of all age groups.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.6 Explain how age influences sleep.

 

60) Which of the following groups is considered to contain champion sleepers—who sleep long but stay awake and alert through the day?

  1. adolescents
  2. children from six to puberty
  3. infants and young children
  4. adults

 

Answer: b

Correct: Infants and children get the most sleep, with the longest periods of REM and deep sleep of all age groups. They feel the most rested through the day.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.6 Explain how age influences sleep.

 

61) Larks are to ________ as owls are to ________.

  1. lower body temperatures; higher body temperatures
  2. few sleep problems; easily adapting to night shifts
  3. sleeping quietly; sleep apnea
  4. eating during the day; eating throughout the night

 

Answer: b

Correct: Larks are known to have the fewest problems with sleep, while owls are reported to adapt more easily to night shifts.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.7 Define larks and owls and describe their different sleep patterns.

 

62) Which of the following is an accurate statement about sleep patterns?

  1. About 25 percentof people are classified as larks.

 

  1. An owl’s body temperature peaks earlier in the day than does a lark’s.
  2. Only 10 percentof people are true owls.
  3. Larks have higher average intelligence than owls.

 

Answer: a

Correct: About 25 percent are owls and 50 percent who are somewhere in between.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.7 Define larks and owls and describe their different sleep patterns.

 

63) The increase in the percentage of REM sleep to make up for REM deprivation is called

  1. sleep appreciation.
  2. REM accommodation.
  3. REM rebound.
  4. REM accrual.

 

Answer: c

Correct: The intensity of REM in this situation often leads to nightmares.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.8 Describe the function of sleep and how sleep deprivation affects functioning.

 

64) What are the momentary lapses from wakefulness into sleep that usually occur when a person has been sleep-deprived?

  1. sleep insertion
  2. microsleeps
  3. rem intrusion
  4. momentary sleep reversal

 

Answer: b

Correct: Microsleeps are two- to three-second lapses into sleep that occur after a period of sleep deprivation.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.8 Describe the function of sleep and how sleep deprivation affects functioning.

 

65) Which of the following is notlikely to happen if you go without sleep for two days?

  1. You will hallucinate.
  2. You are less able to concentrate.
  3. You are likely to have microsleeps.
  4. You are easily irritated.

 

Answer: a

Correct: Lack of sleep for two days results in diminished ability to concentrate, greater irritability, and a tendency toward microsleeps. Feelings of disorientation are not typical.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.8 Describe the function of sleep and how sleep deprivation affects functioning.

 

66) Following REM deprivation, there is usually

  1. an increase in REM sleep.
  2. a decrease in REM sleep.
  3. an absence of REM sleep.
  4. no change in the amount of REM sleep.

 

Answer: a

Correct: When REM sleep is diminished one night due to lack of sleep, one usually experiences an increase in REM sleep the next night.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.8 Describe the function of sleep and how sleep deprivation affects functioning.

 

67) Which type of sleep seems to aid in learning and memory in humans and other animals?

  1. Stage 2
  2. REM sleep
  3. Stage 1
  4. Stages 3 and 4

 

Answer: b

Correct: Some research proposes that REM sleep aids in learning and the consolidation of memories.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.8 Describe the function of sleep and how sleep deprivation affects functioning.

 

68) What is the term for an increased amount of REM sleep that occurs after REM deprivation, which is often associated with unpleasant dreams or nightmares?

  1. REM rebound
  2. REM reversal
  3. microsleep
  4. REM intrusion

 

Answer: a

Correct: When REM sleep is diminished one night due to lack of sleep, one usually experiences an increase in REM sleep the next night. This pattern is known as REM rebound, and is often marked by an increase in nightmares.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.8 Describe the function of sleep and how sleep deprivation affects functioning.

 

69) Gary has not experienced a normal amount of REM sleep for the past few nights due to alcohol use. During the next night’s sleep, Garywould be expected to

  1. sleep for significantly fewer hours.
  2. get an increased amount of REM sleep.
  3. show neither an increase nor decrease in REM sleep.
  4. get a decreased amount of REM sleep.

 

Answer: b

Correct: When REM sleep is diminished one night due to lack of sleep, one usually experiences an increase in REM sleep the next night.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Applied

Objective: 4.8 Describe the function of sleep and how sleep deprivation affects functioning.

 

70) Psychologists believe one of the purposes of REM sleep is to

  1. help organize and store relevant information.
  2. replenish our energy level.
  3. grow new neurons.
  4. support NREM sleep activity.

 

Answer: a

Correct: Some research proposes that REM sleep aids in learning and the consolidation of memories.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.8 Describe the function of sleep and how sleep deprivation affects functioning.

 

71) Compared to REM dreams, NREM dreams are

  1. more visual.
  2. more vivid.
  3. more thought-like.
  4. more emotional.

 

Answer: c

Correct: REM dreams tend to be more visual in nature, while NREM dreams are more thought-like.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

72) Compared to NREM dreams, REM dreams are

  1. more thought-like.
  2. more vivid.
  3. less emotional.
  4. less visual.

 

Answer: b

Correct: REM dreams tend to be more visual in nature, while NREM dreams are more thought-like.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

73) Dream memories usually do not last more than ________ after the dream is over.

  1. 30 minutes
  2. 1 minute
  3. 20 seconds
  4. 10 minutes

 

Answer: d

Correct: Only the bizarre aspects of dreams are remembered for longer than 10 minutes; the majority of dream content is forgotten fairly quickly upon awakening.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

74) As part of a research study, Alicia keeps a journal beside her bed and she records what she was dreaming about as soon as she awakens from a dream. Based on evidence presented in the text, this technique is used probably because

  1. manifest content is more difficult than latent content to recover if the dreams are recorded much after they occur.
  2. dream memories only last about 10 minutes after the dreams have occurred.
  3. she is very forgetful and easily distracted.
  4. latent content is more difficult than manifest content to recover if the dreams are recorded much after they occur.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Only the bizarre aspects of dreams are remembered for longer than 10 minutes; the majority of dream content is forgotten fairly quickly upon awakening.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Applied

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

75) According to researchers, each of the following statements about the content of dreams is correct,except that

  1. dreams are generally consistent with the overall concerns of the dreamer.
  2. most dreams are lucid dreams.

Correct: Lucid dreaming is a learnable skill that enables the dreamer to control the content of their dreams.

  1. males’ dreams tend to have more aggressive content.
  2. females’dreams tend to contain more references to animals.

 

Answer: b

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 106

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

76) Which of the following best describes the typical content of dreams?

  1. Dreams typically reflect the preoccupations of waking life.
  2. Dreams are typically focused on anxiety-provoking problems from daily life.
  3. Dreams are filled with remote and frightening images that we hide from consciousness.
  4. Dreams with pleasant contents are actually quite rare.

 

Answer: a

Correct: It is uncommon for dream content to be bizarre or highly emotional. Most often, dreams consist of uneventful occurrences, including the normal preoccupations of daily life.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 105

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

77) Two of the most common themes of dream content are

  1. being chased and sexual experiences.
  2. illness of a loved one and death.
  3. failing an exam and flying.
  4. being attacked and falling.

 

Answer: a

Correct: Though there are many commonly experienced themes in dream content, the two that are most common are being chased and sexual experiences.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 105

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

78) Which of the following reflects one of the known differences in dream content between men and women?

  1. Men dream about street scenes and tool usage more than women.
  2. Women dream about sunny vacation destinations more than men.
  3. Men’s dreams are more vivid than those of women.
  4. Women dream about sexual encounters more than men.

 

Answer: a

Correct: While women dream more about friendly encounters, clothing and animals, men tend to dream more about street scenes and tools.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 105

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

79) People who havefrightening recurring dreams experience all of the following,except

  1. greater stress.
  2. greater depression and anxiety.
  3. repeated awakenings in the night.
  4. minor physical complaints.

 

Answer: c

Correct: Connections have been made between recurring themes and greater likelihood of depression, anxiety, stress, and physical complaints, but not increased awakenings.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 105-106

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

80) Annie has troubling, recurring dreams, and is practising the ability to control her dreams. What is the name for this skill?

  1. active dreaming
  2. lucid dreaming
  3. activation-synthesis dreaming
  4. parasomnia

 

Answer: b

Correct: Dreaming while exerting control over one’s dreams is called lucid dreaming. It is a learnable skill that can be perfected with regular practice.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 106

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

81) Lucid dreaming refers to the ability to

  1. dream while awake.
  2. remember dreams at all times.
  3. control the dream content of others.
  4. control the content of one’s own dreams.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Lucid dreaming is the ability to control or change the content of one’s dreams. Some people are able to dream about specific content at will.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 106

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

82) One observed benefit of lucid dreaming is that it can

  1. reduce confusion during waking hours.
  2. improve memory and learning in daytime hours.
  3. inhibit unwanted sexual urges during daytime hours.
  4. reduce or eliminate unpleasant recurring themes in dream content.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Lucid dreams have been used to bring about successful resolution to unpleasant recurring dreams.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 106

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

83) Freud emphasized the ________ content of dreams, which he claimed revealed the hidden and repressed desires of the unconscious.

  1. manifest
  2. ulterior
  3. intrinsic
  4. latent

 

Answer: d

Correct: According to Freud, the unconscious sexual desires and wishes are disguised in dream content, and as such, were only identified in the latent content of dreams.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 106

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

84) When Su Mei told Pearl about her dream, Freud would say that Su Mei was relating the ________ of her dream.

  1. manifest content
  2. superficial aspect
  3. day residue
  4. latent content

 

Answer: a

Correct: The manifest content of a dream refers to the events and details that the dreamer can remember.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 106

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

85) Hobson’s initial physiological view of dreaming is that dreams are simply the brain’s attempt to make sense of

  1. early childhood memories.
  2. the random firing of brain cells.
  3. distressing life events.
  4. our personal experiences.

 

Answer: b

Correct: According to Hobson’s initial theory, dreams stem from the brain’s organization of random firings of neurons.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 106

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

86) Brain-imaging studies suggest that several brain structures such as the ________ and the ________ play important roles in dream activity.

  1. cortex; ventricles
  2. prefrontal cortex; cingulate gyrus
  3. hypothalamus; pineal
  4. hippocampus; amygdala

 

Answer: d

Correct: These brain structures are involved in the formation of memories and the attachment of emotions to the new memories.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 106

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

87) A “short sleeper” refers to someone who needs

  1. less space in which to sleep.
  2. little preparation to fall asleep
  3. short naps during the day.
  4. less than six hours of sleep per night.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Approximately 20 percent of the population is known as “short sleepers;” they are individuals who require less than six hours of sleep per night.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.10 Describe the factors that influence how much sleep we need.

 

88) A person who needs less than 6 hours of sleep per night is called

  1. a microsleeper.
  2. an insomniac.
  3. sleep resistant.
  4. a short sleeper.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Approximately 20 percent of the population is known as “short sleepers;” they are individuals who require less than six hours of sleep per night.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.10 Describe the factors that influence how much sleep we need.

 

89) Which of the following factors does not seem to influence our need for sleep?

  1. the amount of stress we experience
  2. genetics
  3. increases in mental and physical effort
  4. our occupation

 

Answer: d

Correct: Genetics, stress, and degrees of mental and physical exertion throughout the day can all impact on our need for sleep. In and of itself, one’s occupation does not have such an effect.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.10 Describe the factors that influence how much sleep we need.

 

90) Short sleepers are the 20 percent who require fewer than _____ hours of sleep; long sleepers are the 10 percent who require more than _____.

  1. 3; 8
  2. 8; 12
  3. 2; 9
  4. 6; 9

 

Answer: d

Correct: Short sleepers are the 20 percent who require fewer than six hours; long sleepers are the 10 percent who require more than nine.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.10 Describe the factors that influence how much sleep we need.

 

91) According to data from a number of studies more than ______ percent of the population is chronically sleep deprived.

  1. 12
  2. 36
  3. 50
  4. 27

 

Answer: b

Correct: Many people do not get enough sleep.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.10 Describe the factors that influence how much sleep we need.

 

92) Behaviours and other states that usually occur only when you are awake are called ________ if they occur when you are asleep.

  1. insomnias
  2. parasomnias
  3. sleep apneas
  4. narcolepsies

 

Answer: b

Correct: The definition of a parasomnia is an activity that normally occurs only during waking hours, but is instead being exhibited during sleeping hours.

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.11 Define parasomnia.

 

93) Which of these characteristics is not common to sleepwalking and night terrors?

  1. The disturbances occur most often in children.
  2. Episodes are usually forgotten the next morning.
  3. They occur during a partial arousal from Stage 4 sleep.
  4. In children, the disturbances indicate a psychological problem, which should be treated by a mental health professional.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Sleepwalking and night terrors are actually very common in childhood and do not reflect a psychological problem.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

94) Walking in one’s sleep is a sleep disturbance called

  1. hypersomnia.
  2. apnea.
  3. somnambulism.
  4. night terrors.

 

Answer: c

Correct: Somnambulism is another term for sleepwalking.

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

95) Which of the following is true about sleepwalking?

  1. Sleepwalking occurs during REM sleep.
  2. Sleepwalkers will remember the episode the next day.
  3. During sleepwalking, a person’s brain wave activity reflects both the sleeping and waking state.
  4. It is dangerous to awaken a sleepwalker.

 

Answer: c

Correct: The EEG of sleepwalkers reflects brain waves signalling a waking state (i.e., alpha and beta waves), as well as delta waves, which signal sleep.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 107-108

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

96) Somnambulism typically occurs during

  1. Stage 4 sleep.
  2. REM sleep.
  3. Stage 1 sleep.
  4. paradoxical sleep.

 

Answer: a

Correct: Sleepwalking typically occurs during Stage 4 sleep.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

97) Sleepwalking and sleep terrors occur during a partial arousal from

  1. Stage 1 sleep.
  2. REM sleep.
  3. Stage 4 sleep.
  4. Stage 2 sleep.

 

Answer: c

Correct: Sleepwalking and sleep terrors typically occur during Stage 4 sleep.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

98) Three-year-old Adam lets out a piercing scream a few hours after he has fallen asleep. When his parents come to his room, Adam is sitting up in bed with his eyes open and in a state of panic, with a racing heart. Within 15 minutes, he has fallen back to sleep, and the next day he has no memory of the episode. Adam has experienced

  1. a REM rebound.
  2. a sleep terror.
  3. an anxiety nightmare.
  4. an incubus nightmare.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Night terrors are marked by a piercing scream, racing heart, expressions of panic in the one experiencing them, and the inability to remember the episode the day after the event.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Applied

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

99) If awakened during a sleep terror, a child

  1. will not be able to enter REM sleep again that night.
  2. will not recall anything they are thinking about.
  3. may develop a fear of being awakened a night.
  4. may recall a single frightening image.

 

Answer: d

Correct: If not awakened during a sleep terror, a child will usually not even remember the episode the next day. If awakened, he or she will likely recall a single image in that frightening dream.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

100) At about the age of four, Erik began awakening from naps and in the middle of the night, screaming and disoriented. His condition is

  1. a prelude to more serious sleep disturbances, like sleepwalking.
  2. a permanent sleep disorder closely related to narcolepsy.
  3. a result of childhood sleep apnea.
  4. a sleep terror that he will eventually “grow out of.”

 

Answer: d

Correct: It is most common for children to grow out of the stage in which they experience sleep terrors.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 107-108

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

101) A very frightening dream that occurs during the REM sleep we experience toward the morning hours is

  1. a sleep terror.
  2. an incubus nightmare.
  3. a somnambulistic nightmare.
  4. an anxiety nightmare.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Anxiety nightmares, as compared to sleep terrors, tend to occur toward the last few hours of sleep in the early morning.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

102) Anxiety nightmare is to ________ as sleep terror is to ________.

  1. REM sleep; Stage 4 sleep
  2. Stage 4 sleep; REM sleep
  3. REM sleep; NREM sleep
  4. NREM sleep; REM sleep

 

Answer: a

Correct: Anxiety nightmares tend to occur during REM sleep, while sleep terrors are more common in the early night, during Stage 4 sleep.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

103) Anxiety nightmares are more common during all of the following,except

  1. traumatic life experiences or emotional upheavals.
  2. sleepwalking.
  3. drug withdrawal.
  4. high fevers.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Anxiety nightmares typically occur during REM sleep, while somnambulism occurs while the person is experiencing deep sleep.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

104) Sleep disturbances that occur during NREM sleep include all of the following,except

  1. sleeptalking.
  2. night terrors.
  3. sleepwalking.
  4. anxiety nightmares.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Anxiety nightmares are typical of REM sleep.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

105) All of the following are true about sleeptalking,exceptthat

  1. sleeptalking usually occurs during Stage 1 or Stage 2 sleep.
  2. sleeptalkers can be made to admit to something embarrassing, or confess a deep secret.
  3. sleeptalkers rarely answer questions, but tend to mumble replies.
  4. there is no connection between sleeptalking and a physical or psychological disturbance.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Sleeptalkers cannot be made to reveal anything secretive nor embarrassing about themselves during episodes of somniloquy.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

106) Which of the following would not be likely to bring on a sleep attack in a narcoleptic?

  1. walking on a treadmill
  2. lovemaking
  3. eating a big Thanksgiving dinner
  4. watching a hilarious movie

 

Answer: a

Correct: Sleep attacks are most often triggered by events involving extreme emotion, or activities that would cause sleepiness. Walking on a treadmill would likely elicit neither of these types of reactions.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 108-109

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

107) Which of the following is an incurable sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and uncontrollable attacks of REM sleep?

  1. insomnia
  2. narcolepsy
  3. sleep apnea
  4. parasomnia

 

Answer: b

Correct: Narcolepsy is defined as an incurable disorder that manifests in episodes of excessive drowsiness during the day and attacks of REM sleep.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

108) Bill is usually very sleepy during the day and several times each week he falls asleep at work. A sleep clinic recently said he was suffering from

  1. narcolepsy.
  2. insomnia.
  3. somnambulism.
  4. cataplexy.

 

Answer: a

Correct: Narcolepsy is defined as an incurable disorder that manifests in episodes of excessive drowsiness during the day and attacks of REM sleep.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Applied

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

109) Narcolepsy is

  1. a physiological disorder caused by an abnormality in part of the brain that regulates sleep.

Correct: Narcolepsy is an incurable disorder that manifests in episodes of excessive drowsiness during the day and attacks of REM sleep, the cause of which is an organic brain disorder in the area that regulates sleep.

  1. a sleep disorder brought about by the use of narcotics.
  2. similar to insomnia, but significantly more disruptive in the person’s life.
  3. a psychological state in which the person is unable to fall asleep.

 

Answer: a

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

110) A condition in which individuals fall suddenly into REM sleep in the midst of waking activities is called

  1. narcolepsy.
  2. somnambulism.
  3. insomnia.
  4. sleep apnea.

 

Answer: a

Correct: Narcolepsy is defined as an incurable disorder that manifests in episodes of excessive drowsiness during the day and attacks of REM sleep.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

111) Which of the following is not true about narcoleptics?

  1. They are generally lazy and depressed.
  2. Their disorder has a strong genetic component.
  3. Sleep attacks usually last 10-20 minutes.
  4. Their disorder is incurable.

 

Answer: a

Correct: The perception of narcoleptics is that they are lazy, disinterested in their work and/or depressed. None of these are founded in fact.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

112) Sleep apnea consists of periods during sleep when

  1. the individual spends an excessive amount of time in REM sleep.
  2. the person is unable to stop themselves from having sleep terrors.
  3. breathing stops and the individual must awaken briefly to breathe.
  4. heartbeat, pulse and body temperature are at their lowest levels.

 

Answer: c

Correct: Frequent night-time wakings are one of the major disturbances suffered by persons with sleep apnea, as they must often awaken to breathe.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

113) All of the following are symptoms of sleep apnea,except

  1. periods where breathing stops during sleep.
  2. excessive daytime sleepiness.
  3. REM sleep attacks during the day.
  4. loud snoring, snorts, and gasps.

 

Answer: c

Correct: Drowsiness may occur in persons with sleep apnea, but not necessarily REM attacks.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

114) Arden often stops breathing for several minutes during sleep. He suffers from

  1. sleep apnea.
  2. narcolepsy.
  3. somnambulism.
  4. hypersomnia.

 

Answer: a

Correct: Sleep apnea is a disorder that causes breathing to stop intermittently during sleep.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

115) Sleep apnea can cause all of the following,except

  1. heart problems.
  2. low blood pressure.
  3. excessive daytime sleepiness.
  4. death.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Sufferers of sleep apnea are known to experience high blood pressure, not low blood pressure.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

116) Which of the following results in impairment of daytime functioning because of difficulty falling and staying asleep?

  1. sleep apnea
  2. narcolepsy
  3. parasomnia
  4. insomnia

 

Answer: d

Correct: Insomnia is a condition related to the inability to fall asleep and/or stay asleep, or having sleep of consistently poor quality.

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

117) Which of the following is not a symptom of insomnia?

  1. taking longer than 30 minutes to fall asleep
  2. falling asleep during waking activities
  3. having one or more awakenings at night with at least 30 minutes awake
  4. waking up too early with less than 6.5 hours of sleep

 

Answer: b

Correct: Insomnia does not necessarily result in a person falling asleep during waking activities, despite the fact that tiredness is common among insomniacs during daytime hours.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

118) What is the approximate rate of insomnia in Canadians over age 15?

  1. 5 percent
  2. 13 percent
  3. 21 percent
  4. 46 percent

 

Answer: b

Correct: A very alarming rate.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

119) Which of the following is good advice for people suffering from insomnia?

  1. Use your bed only for reading, watching television, and so on.
  2. Leave the bedroom if you don’t fall asleep within 30 minutes.
  3. Exercise vigorously shortly before bedtime.
  4. Adopt a schedule that includes a nap each day.

 

Answer: b

Correct: In order to associate the bed and bedroom with sleep, if an attack of insomnia occurs, it is best to leave the bedroom until you begin to feel drowsy again.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder. (Apply It)

 

120) Which of the following is not one of the causes of temporary insomnia mentioned in the textbook.

  1. jet lag
  2. emotional highs or lows
  3. REM stage disorders
  4. brief illness

 

Answer: c

Correct: Temporary insomnia lasts less than three weeks.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

121) What can you do to get a better night’s sleep?

  1. Try varying the time you go to bed—early one day, late the next.
  2. Go to bed quickly, not allowing yourself time to think about your sleep problem.
  3. Go to bed at the same time every night and stay there until you fall asleep.
  4. Set your alarm clock and wake up at the same time every day.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Waking up at the same time every day, and avoiding naps throughout the day, are strategies known to alleviate insomnia.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder. (Apply It)

 

122) Narcolepsy is to _________ as insomnia is to ____________.

  1. REM attacks; chronic poor-quality sleep
  2. awaking to breathe; REM attacks
  3. REM attacks; REM rebound
  4. awaking to breathe; chronic poor-quality sleep

 

Answer: a

Correct: Narcolepsy is marked by frequent REM attacks during daytime hours, while insomnia is marked by poor-quality sleep over a prolonged period.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 108-109

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

123) Which of the following is not a way to start a session of meditation?

  1. Concentrate on your breathing.
  2. Relax your muscles from the feet up.
  3. Focus on your problems.
  4. Repeat a mantra.

 

Answer: c

Correct: It is advisable to avoid any distracting thoughts when one is attempting to meditate, most notably those that might be upsetting or otherwise unpleasant.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.14 Define meditation and describe its purpose.

 

124) Which is not a recommended use of meditation?

  1. to reduce arousal
  2. to promote relaxation
  3. to substitute for anaesthesia during surgery
  4. to bring a person to a higher level of spirituality

 

Answer: c

Correct: Meditation may promote relaxation, aid in the development of one’s spirituality, and ultimately alter consciousness. It is not recommended as a substitute for anaesthesia during surgery.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.14 Define meditation and describe its purpose.

 

125) The primary reason most people meditate is to achieve

  1. relaxation.
  2. increased breathing volume.
  3. changes in blood pressure.
  4. stimulation.

 

Answer: a

Correct: While benefits of meditation are known to include lowering one’s blood pressure and improving cardiovascular health, it is not meant as a stimulant. Its main benefit is the sense of relaxation one achieves through meditation.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.14 Define meditation and describe its purpose.

 

126) Dr. Herbert Benson suggests that when we are meditating and a distracting thought comes to mind, we should

  1. stop meditating until it goes away.
  2. ignore it.
  3. focus on it.
  4. solve the problem before continuing to meditate.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Benson’s procedure includes several clearly outlined steps. Among his additional advice is to ignore thoughts that interfere or distract the mind during one’s efforts to meditate.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.14 Define meditation and describe its purpose.

 

127) Which of the following is not characteristic of a person under hypnosis?

  1. concentrated, focused attention
  2. heightened suggestibility
  3. decreased response to external stimuli
  4. heightened awareness of his or her surroundings

 

Answer: d

Correct: It is common for the person being hypnotized to have diminished responses to his or her environment.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.15 Define hypnosis and describe its use.

 

128) According to the text, hypnosis is

  1. completely useless and a mere carnival trick.
  2. a trance-like state of concentrated attention and heightened suggestibility.
  3. an alternative mode of consciousness where anything is possible for the person.
  4. a drug-induced state where people act out anything that someone suggests to them.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Those under hypnosis appear to be in a trance, have diminished responses to stimuli in their environment, and are more highly suggestible than they would be in a fully conscious state.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.15 Define hypnosis and describe its use.

 

129) Which of the following statements is true of people under hypnosis?

  1. Their memory is more accurate than during the normal waking state.
  2. They are much stronger than in the normal waking state.
  3. They will often violate their moral code.
  4. They can be made to experience distortions in their perceptions.

 

Answer: d

Correct: People under the influence of hypnosis sense things that are not truly in their environment, and occasionally do not perceive things that are present.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.15 Define hypnosis and describe its use.

 

130) Which of the following would Jim be most likely to do under hypnosis?

  1. Refuse to engage in behaviours that violate his moral code.
  2. Fall under the complete control of the hypnotist.
  3. Relive events as they occurred in his childhood.
  4. Lift weights that are much heavier than he could ordinarily lift.

 

Answer: a

Correct: While individuals under hypnosis can be made to do many things they may resist doing during a fully conscious state, they cannot be made to violate the moral code they adhere to during waking hours.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.15 Define hypnosis and describe its use.

 

131) Highly hypnotizable people can easily

  1. recall their past lives.
  2. be made to tell their inner most personal secrets, even if they do not want to.
  3. perform super human feats of strength.
  4. become completely absorbed in imaginative activities.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Becoming completely absorbed in imaginative activities is one of the markers of highly hypnotizable people.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.15 Define hypnosis and describe its use.

 

132) Which of the following is Toni not likely to do under hypnosis?

  1. smell or taste something that is not there
  2. become more suggestible
  3. reveal embarrassing secrets about her past
  4. fail to see or hear something that is occurring

 

Answer: c

Correct: While individuals under hypnosis can be made to do many things they may resist doing during a fully conscious state, they cannot be made to violate the moral code they adhere to during waking hours, nor reveal embarrassing secrets.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 110-111

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.15 Define hypnosis and describe its use.

 

133) Hypnosis is a viable treatment option in all of the following applications,except

  1. psychotherapy.
  2. pain management.
  3. overcoming drug abuse.
  4. controlling side effects of cancer.

 

Answer: c

Correct: Hypnosis has been known to have many medical applications, including all of those listed in the other options. However, research has shown hypnosis to be essentially ineffective in the battle against various addictions.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.15 Define hypnosis and describe its use.

 

134) For a moderately hypnotizable person, which use of hypnosis would probably be most successful?

  1. for treating drug addiction
  2. for relief from pain
  3. for improving memory
  4. learning new skills more quickly

 

Answer: b

Correct: Hypnosis has been shown to have many benefits, and can be a means of relieving pain.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.15 Define hypnosis and describe its use.

 

135) The text refers to research critical of hypnosis, which suggested that

  1. people are simply acting out the role suggested by the hypnotist.
  2. suggestibility is an unsupportable concept.
  3. it was used repeatedly to cause problems for people and not help them.
  4. subjects were just lying to the hypnotist.

 

Answer: a

Correct: One explanation is that people are simply acting out the role suggested by the hypnotist.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.15 Define hypnosis and describe its use.

 

136) Psychoactive drugs are called controlled substances when they are

  1. freely available.
  2. approved for medical use only.
  3. illicit or illegal.
  4. still under a pharmaceutical company’s patent.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Some psychoactive drugs are prescribed for medicinal purposes and are considered controlled substances.

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.16 Define psychoactive drugs.

 

137) Psychoactive drugs are

  1. all illegal.
  2. substances that alter mood, perception, or thought.

Correct: Some psychoactive drugs are prescribed for medicinal purposes and are considered controlled substances.

  1. manufactured.
  2. addictive.

 

Answer: b

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.16 Define psychoactive drugs.

 

138) The pleasure response in the brain is triggered by the neurotransmitter called

  1. dopamine.
  2. serotonin.
  3. GABA.
  4. acetylcholine.

 

Answer: a

Correct: The pleasure response is triggered by a surge of dopamine molecules into a part of thebrain’s limbic system known as the nucleus accumbens.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.16 Define psychoactive drugs.

 

139) Psychoactive drugs

  1. damage the user.
  2. alter mood, perception, or thought.
  3. are illegal.
  4. harm society.

 

Answer: b

Correct: The definition of a psychoactive drug is one that alters mood, thought, or perception.

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.16 Define psychoactive drugs.

 

140) Which of the following statements regarding psychological dependence on drugsis false?

  1. It is harder to overcome than physical addiction.
  2. It is related to how pleasurable the drug’s effects are.
  3. It happens only with physically addicting drugs.
  4. It is related to how much discomfort is experienced when the drug is discontinued.

 

Answer: c

Correct: Psychological dependence can occur with use of drugs that do not result in physical addiction.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.17 Describe and contrast drug dependence and drug tolerance.

 

141) During withdrawal from a drug, the user experiences symptoms that are ________ the effects produced by the drug.

  1. much less noticeable than
  2. the opposite of
  3. less troubling than
  4. the same as

 

Answer: b

Correct: The effects of withdrawal from stimulants cause exhaustion and depression; the effects of withdrawal from depressants leave users feeling agitated and anxious.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.17 Describe and contrast drug dependence and drug tolerance.

 

142) Horace requires progressively more and more of a drug to get the same effect. He has developed

  1. withdrawal symptoms.
  2. a psychological dependence.
  3. a drug addiction.
  4. a drug tolerance.

Correct: When the body requires increasing amounts of a drug for it to have the same impact, this is known as a drug tolerance, and stems from the body’s natural defenses against the effects of the drug.

 

Answer: d

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Applied

Objective: 4.17 Describe and contrast drug dependence and drug tolerance.

 

143) Which of the following does not necessarily occur with drug tolerance?

  1. The user becomes progressively less affected by the drug.
  2. The user develops a craving for the pleasurable effects of the drug.
  3. The body adjusts to functioning with the drug in the system.
  4. The person needs larger and larger doses of the drug to get the desired effect.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Intense cravings for the pleasurable effects of a drug are known as psychological dependence, which may or may not be associated with a drug tolerance.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.17 Describe and contrast drug dependence and drug tolerance.

 

144) Which of the following is the most difficult part of addiction to combat?

  1. drug tolerance
  2. availability
  3. psychological dependence
  4. physical withdrawal

 

Answer: c

Correct: The intense pleasurable effects of a drug often result in psychological dependence, which is more difficult to combat than physical dependence.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.17 Describe and contrast drug dependence and drug tolerance.

 

145) Which of the following is characteristic of the most addictive drugs?

  1. They have the longest lasting effects.
  2. They produce the least discomfort afterwards.
  3. Their effects are felt almost immediately.
  4. They have a delayed effect.

 

Answer: c

Correct: The most easily addictive drugs are those whose effects are felt quickest. An example would be crack cocaine, the effects of which are felt in seconds.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.18 Explain what factors influence the addictive potential of a drug.

 

146) With the most addictive drugs, the effects are

  1. immediate, long-lasting, and intense.
  2. delayed, short-lived, and intense.
  3. delayed, long-lasting, and intense.
  4. immediate, short-lived, and intense.

 

Answer: d

Correct: The faster and more intensely one feels the effects of a drug, and the shorter the duration of these effects, the more likely the user is to seek out those effects repeatedly. This leads to rapid addiction.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.18 Explain what factors influence the addictive potential of a drug.

 

147) Drugs are categorized as depressants, stimulants, opiates, or hallucinogens depending on their

  1. substantive origins.
  2. psychological effects.

Correct: Classifications of drugs are based on the manner in which they alter consciousness.

  1. chemical composition.
  2. biochemical consequences.

 

Answer: b

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.18 Explain what factors influence the addictive potential of a drug.

 

148) The addictive potential of a drug is greatest if it is

  1. smoked.
  2. snorted.
  3. injected.
  4. taken orally.

 

Answer: a

Correct: Of the various means of ingesting substances, those taken orally are less likely to be addictive than those injected. Even more addictive are those that are smoked.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.18 Explain what factors influence the addictive potential of a drug.

 

149) Which of the following is not a factor in how addictive a psychoactive drug is?

  1. whether a drug is legal or illegal
  2. how quickly the effects of the drug are felt
  3. how pleasurable the drug’s effects are
  4. how long the pleasurable effects last

 

Correct: Many legal drugs are very addictive.

Answer: a

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.18 Explain what factors influence the addictive potential of a drug.

 

150) Which drugs boost energy, heighten alertness, and increase activity?

  1. barbiturates
  2. stimulants
  3. hallucinogens
  4. alcoholic beverages

 

Answer: b

Correct: Stimulants are so called because they hasten the functioning of the central nervous system, causing the sensation of an increase in energy and alertness.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

151) Drugs which speed up activity in the central nervous system are classified as

  1. stimulants.
  2. hallucinogens.
  3. depressants.
  4. opiates.

 

Answer: a

Correct: Stimulants are so called because they hasten the functioning of the central nervous system, causing the sensation of an increase in energy and alertness.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

152) Which of the following is not a stimulant?

  1. amphetamines
  2. alcohol
  3. caffeine
  4. nicotine

 

Answer: b

Correct: Alcohol is classed as a depressant, as it slows down the central nervous system.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113, 116

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

153) Cocaine, caffeine, and nicotine are examples of

  1. opiates.
  2. barbiturates.
  3. stimulants.
  4. hallucinogens.

 

Answer: c

Correct: All of these drugs have the effect of speeding up the central nervous system, the mark of the stimulant class of drugs.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113-114

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

154) All of the following drugs share some common effects,except

  1. amphetamines.
  2. caffeine.
  3. cocaine.
  4. barbiturates.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Of these four drugs, only barbiturates are depressants. The others are all stimulants.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

155) The most widely used psychoactive compound in the world is

  1. alcohol.
  2. caffeine.
  3. marijuana.
  4. nicotine.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Caffeine is considered the mostly widely used drug in the world.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

156) Which of the following is not associated with caffeine use?

  1. increased ability to stay awake
  2. increased mental alertness
  3. initial improvement in mood followed by higher levels of negative emotions
  4. sexual dysfunction

 

Answer: d

Correct: While caffeine does heighten one’s sense of alertness, and helps one stay awake while also frequently improving one’s mood, it is not associated with sexual dysfunction.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

157) Which stimulant causes the most deaths?

  1. amphetamines
  2. cigarettes
  3. cocaine
  4. caffeine

 

Answer: b

Correct: Smoking cigarettes is the leading cause of death in Canada related to use of stimulants.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113-114

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

158) Which of the following would not be an effect of amphetamines?

  1. to increase arousal
  2. to relax and calm
  3. to relieve fatigue
  4. to suppress appetite

 

Answer: b

Correct: Amphetamines are a form of stimulant, which does the opposite of relaxing or calming an individual.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

159) “Crank,” “ice,” and “speed” are forms of

  1. cocaine.
  2. amphetamines.
  3. hallucinogens.
  4. opiates.

 

Answer: b

Correct: These are street names for methamphetamine—one of the most powerful amphetamines.

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

160) Which of the following is not characteristic of a crash from an amphetamine high?

  1. depression
  2. physical exhaustion
  3. extended sleeping
  4. loss of appetite

 

Answer: d

Correct: Loss of appetite is more likely associated with the use of amphetamines, rather than the crash after the high that the drug induces.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

161) The stimulant derived from coca leaves is known as ________ and is typically ________.

  1. nicotine; smoked
  2. marijuana; smoked
  3. caffeine; ingested
  4. cocaine; snorted

 

Answer: d

Correct: One of the most common ways of ingesting cocaine, a coca leaf derivative, is by inhaling it rapidly into the nostrils.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

162) Which of the following drugs is likely to produce an emotional crash marked by strong anxiety, depression, and fatigue when the drug wears off?

  1. LSD
  2. cocaine
  3. nicotine
  4. endorphins

 

Answer: b

Correct: Among the effects of the withdrawal from the use of cocaine are depression and fatigue, along with marked anxiety and agitation.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

163) To which drug do animals become most easily addicted?

  1. cocaine
  2. marijuana
  3. alcohol
  4. nicotine

 

Answer: a

Correct: When allowed to become addicted to any substance, research has demonstrated that animals will most frequently select to self-administer cocaine.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

164) Cocaine stimulates the ________ pathways of the brain that use the neurotransmitter dopamine.

  1. cognitive
  2. perceptual
  3. pleasure

 

  1. sensory

 

Answer: c

Correct: It is this reward experience that makes cocaine so addictive.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

165) Joshua, a heavy user, has just taken cocaine. He can expect

  1. a short period of euphoria followed by a long, slow let-down.
  2. a long period of bliss followed by an intense crash.
  3. a short period of euphoria followed by an intense crash.
  4. a long period of bliss followed by a mild let-down.

 

Correct: The feelings of euphoria associated with cocaine last only about 45 minutes, after which there is a strong emotional crash.

Answer: c

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Applied

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

166) Cocaine is to ________________ as LSD is to _______________.

  1. stimulant; hallucinogen
  2. hallucinogen; stimulant
  3. hallucinogen; depressant
  4. depressant; hallucinogen

 

Answer: a

Correct: Cocaine is one of the stimulants; LSD is a hallucinogen.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

167) Stimulants do each of the following except

  1. make a person feel more alert and energetic.
  2. suppress appetite.
  3. increase the body’s store of energy.
  4. increase blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration rate.

 

Answer: c

Correct: While stimulants may cause a person to feel momentarily more energetic, they do not actually increase a person’s supply of energy. In fact, energy is typically quite depleted after the effects of the stimulants are diminished.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

168) Which category of drug alters perception and mood and is most likely to cause hallucinations?

  1. narcotics
  2. stimulants
  3. hallucinogens
  4. barbiturates

 

Answer: c

Correct: Hallucinogens are so named because of their effect of causing hallucinations in the user.

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.20 Identify the most common types of hallucinogens and describe their effects.

 

169) Which of the following is not an example of a hallucinogen?

  1. cocaine
  2. marijuana
  3. LSD
  4. ecstasy

 

Answer: a

Correct: Cocaine is classed as a stimulant, not a hallucinogen.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.20 Identify the most common types of hallucinogens and describe their effects.

 

170) What drug has unpredictable effects that can range from altered perceptions and hallucinations to states of panic and terror?

  1. LSD
  2. heroin
  3. crack
  4. crank

 

Answer: a

Correct: The range of effects of LSD on the user include everything from euphoria to severe anxiety and panic.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.20 Identify the most common types of hallucinogens and describe their effects.

 

171) Lily uses drugs that alter her mood and perceptions and can leave her with a feeling of unreality. She most likely uses

  1. stimulants.
  2. narcotics.
  3. barbiturates.
  4. hallucinogens.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Hallucinogens alter perceptions and produce feelings of unreality.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Applied

Objective: 4.20 Identify the most common types of hallucinogens and describe their effects.

 

172) The main appeal of the drug ecstasy is

  1. the sudden rush of extra energy.
  2. strange patterns and colours the user experiences.
  3. the heightened sexuality and sense of power.
  4. a feeling of relatedness and connectedness with others.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Ecstasy is a cross between a hallucinogen and an amphetamine. Users report greater feelings of connectedness with others.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 114-115

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.20 Identify the most common types of hallucinogens and describe their effects.

 

173) Research with ecstasy has revealed

  1. improved sexual experience.
  2. flashbacks can happen as long as 20 years after first use of the drug.
  3. that people really do become better friends with others, while using the drug.
  4. it may cause irreversible destruction of serotonin-releasing neurons.

 

Answer: d

Correct: One of the significant dangers of ecstasy use is the finding that it permanently destroys neurons that produce serotonin in laboratory animals.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 114-115

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.20 Identify the most common types of hallucinogens and describe their effects.

 

174) Which of the following is not a stimulant?

  1. amphetamines
  2. marijuana
  3. nicotine
  4. cocaine

 

Answer: b

Correct: Marijuana is classified as a hallucinogen due to its effects of distorting perception.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 115

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.21 Describe the effects of marijuana.

 

175) Which of the following drugs causes a perceived increase in the intensity of various stimuli, distortions in the sense of time, and reduced inhibitions and anxiety?

  1. endorphins
  2. marijuana
  3. barbiturates
  4. LSD

 

Answer: b

Correct: The marijuana user may report heightened awareness of sights and sounds, a sense that time has slowed down, and a decrease in inhibitions, among other effects.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 115

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.21 Describe the effects of marijuana.

 

176) The most widely used hallucinogen is

  1. cocaine.
  2. marijuana.
  3. LSD.
  4. ecstasy.

 

Answer: b

Correct: Canada’s most widely used illicit drug is a hallucinogen: marijuana.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 115

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.21 Describe the effects of marijuana.

 

177) Each of the following is a potential side effect of prolonged marijuana use,except

  1. problems in concentration.
  2. aggressiveness.
  3. decrease in level of sex hormones in males.
  4. impairment in the ability to form new memories.

 

Answer: b

Correct: While prolonged use of marijuana is associated with memory impairments, difficulty with concentration, and decreased sex hormones in men, it is not associated with aggressiveness in any way.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.21 Describe the effects of marijuana.

 

178) Which of the following is not associated with long-term use of marijuana?

  1. increased risk of heart attack and stroke
  2. reproductive difficulties
  3. loss of motivation
  4. memory impairments

 

Answer: a

Correct: Marijuana has been associated with impaired coordination, loss of motivation, and problems with reproduction. It has not been attributed to increased risk of heart attack or stroke.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.21 Describe the effects of marijuana.

 

179) Which abnormality in sexual functioning has not been attributed to heavy marijuana use?

  1. impotence in men
  2. reduced sexual desire in women
  3. lowered sperm count and testosterone levels
  4. failure to ovulate

 

Answer: b

Correct: Research has identified that men have experienced lowered sperm count and diminished testosterone levels, as well as impotence, through marijuana use. Women have experienced menstrual irregularities, but have not been reported to experience reduced sexual desire in association with marijuana use.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.21 Describe the effects of marijuana.

 

180) Antoinette, a high school student, has become apathetic, is unable to remember recent events, and has little motivation. Her grades are beginning to decline as well. Based on the description in the text, which of the following drugs could account for her condition?

  1. nicotine
  2. caffeine
  3. marijuana
  4. LSD

 

Answer: c

Correct: Marijuana has been associated with impaired coordination, loss of motivation, and problems with memory.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Applied

Objective: 4.21 Describe the effects of marijuana.

 

181) Alcohol is to _____________ as marijuana is to ________________

  1. narcotic; stimulant
  2. depressant; hallucinogen
  3. stimulant; hallucinogen
  4. stimulant; depressant

 

Answer: b

Correct: Alcohol is of the depressant class of drugs, while marijuana is a hallucinogen.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 115-116

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

182) Decreased activity in the central nervous system is the chief effect of

  1. narcotics.
  2. depressants.
  3. stimulants.
  4. hallucinogens.

 

Answer: b

Correct: The mark of a depressant is its effect in slowing down the central nervous system.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

183) Which of the following is not associated with barbiturate abuse?

  1. poor thinking and judgment
  2. drowsiness and confusion
  3. affected coordination
  4. flashbacks

 

Answer: d

Correct: Barbiturates are known to affect coordination and cause confusion, drowsiness, poor thinking, and judgment, but not typically flashbacks.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

184) Benzodiazepines are

  1. barbiturates.
  2. hallucinogens.
  3. minor tranquillizers.
  4. narcotics.

 

Answer: c

Correct: Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed to aid in overcoming insomnia, and as such are minor tranquillizers, or depressants.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

185) The more men drink, the

  1. less able they are to perform sexually.
  2. more careful they become in making moral judgments.
  3. better they are at fine motor skill activities.
  4. less sexually aroused they are.

 

Answer: a

Correct: Alcohol has the effect of lowering inhibitions, increasing sexual arousal, but decreasing men’s ability to perform sexually.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

186) A blood alcohol level of 0.80 is

  1. enough to severely impair judgment.
  2. the level at which the user becomes completely anaesthetized.
  3. the legal limit for driving with alcohol in your blood.
  4. the point at which death is certain.

 

Answer: d

Correct: The lethal level of blood alcohol is 0.40 for 50 percent of the population, but 0.80 for all others.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

187) Alcohol and barbiturates can

  1. relax the user, cause sleep, or cause death, depending upon the dose.
  2. cause hyperstimulation, anxiety, and heart attacks.
  3. cause flashbacks, even years after the last use.
  4. lead to chronic memory impairment, disrupt reproductive function, and reduced motivation.

 

Answer: a

Correct: In the extreme, both alcohol and barbiturates can be deadly, but in very small amounts are known to cause the user relaxation or sleepiness.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

188) Valium, Librium, and Xanax are

  1. narcotics.
  2. designer drugs.
  3. barbiturates.
  4. minor tranquilizers.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Among the more commonly used tranquillizers are Librium, Xanax, and Valium.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

189) Narcotics have

  1. pain-relieving effects.
  2. perception-altering effects.
  3. energizing effects.
  4. stimulating effects.

 

Answer: a

Correct: Narcotics have the potential to reduce pain as well as calm the user.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

190) Which class of drugs is often prescribed for the treatment of severe cases of cough and diarrhea?

  1. stimulants
  2. opiates
  3. cannabinoids
  4. depressants

 

Correct: Because of their effect on the bowel and the brain, opiates are a prescribed method of controlling diarrhea. Opiates also suppress the cough centre, which is why they are one of the ingredients in cough medicines.

Answer: b

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

191) Which of the following drugs affects the bowel?

  1. marijuana
  2. opium
  3. benzodiazepines
  4. LSD

 

Answer: b

Correct: Because of their effect on the bowel and the brain, opiates are a prescribed method of controlling diarrhea.

Diff: 1

Type: MC

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

192) Which of the following is a narcotic?

  1. Valium
  2. LSD
  3. heroin
  4. cocaine

 

Answer: c

Correct: The highly addictive derivative of morphine—a major pain suppressant—is heroin.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

193) Which of these is not a narcotic?

  1. codeine
  2. Valium
  3. morphine
  4. heroin

 

Answer: b

Correct: Valium is one of the minor tranquillizers and, as such, is not a narcotic.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

194) Morphine and heroin reduce activity in the nervous system, produce lethargy, and cause a pronounced slowing of almost all bodily functions. These drugs are frequently referred to as

  1. designer drugs.
  2. stimulants.
  3. narcotics.
  4. hallucinogens.

 

Answer: c

Correct: Narcotics have pain-relieving effects, but are also known to calm the user.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

195) Which of the following drugs has the most physically agonizing withdrawal symptoms?

  1. amphetamines
  2. LSD
  3. marijuana
  4. heroin

 

Answer: d

Correct: Withdrawal symptoms associated with heroin include intense stomach cramps and nausea, as well as diarrhea. The pain resulting from withdrawal often becomes unbearable.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

196) Heroin is most closely related to

  1. cocaine.
  2. barbiturates.
  3. marijuana.
  4. morphine.

 

Answer: d

Correct: Heroin is derived from morphine.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

197) According to the text, research has revealed that alcohol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines cause the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter

  1. GABA.
  2. norepinephrine.
  3. endorphin.
  4. acetylcholine.

 

Answer: a

Correct: GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is stimulated by the use of alcohol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines.

Diff: 3

Type: MC

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

198) Cocaine and amphetamines are highly rewarding because they increase the effect of the neurotransmitter

  1. dopamine.
  2. serotonin.
  3. acetylcholine.
  4. GABA.

 

Answer: a

Correct: Dopamine is associated with reward and reinforcement. Cocaine and amphetamines stimulate the availability of dopamine in the brain.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

199) Cocaine and amphetamines

  1. add to the level of serotonin.
  2. decrease the level of serotonin.
  3. slow the reuptake of dopamine.
  4. release dopamine.

 

Answer: c

Correct: Dopamine is associated with reward and reinforcement. Cocaine and amphetamines stimulate the availability of dopamine in the brain, partly by slowing the reuptake of dopamine.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

200) Opiates such as morphine and heroin mimic the effects of

  1. endorphins.
  2. serotonin.
  3. sedatives.
  4. GABA.

 

Answer: a

Correct: The effect of endorphins is to make us feel good. Morphine and heroin mimic that sensation.

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

201) There is now ample evidence that dopamine is involved in the rewarding and motivational effects produced by a long list of drugs, including all of the following,except

  1. barbiturates

Correct: Barbiturateswork on GABA.

  1. alcohol
  2. amphetamines
  3. cocaine

 

Answer: a

Diff: 2

Type: MC

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

202) According to the text, we spend as much as one-third of our life in an altered state of consciousness.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

203) We sleep best when our body temperature is at the low point in our 24-hour cycle.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 2

Type: TF

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

204) The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is located in the brain’s hypothalamus.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 2

Type: TF

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.2 Explain the importance of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

 

205) Shift work significantly increases the risk of physical injury and accidents.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 100

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.3 Describe the problems associated with shift work.

 

206) A light mask has been used to reset shift workers’ biological clocks.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 100

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.3 Describe the problems associated with shift work.

 

207) If you awaken during REM sleep, you can return to REM sleep even if you stay awake for several minutes.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 101

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.4 Define and compare NREM and REM sleep.

 

208) People are hardest to awaken from Stage 4 sleep.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.5 Describe the pattern of sleep cycles.

 

209) A sleep cycle is usually 90 minutes long.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.5 Describe the pattern of sleep cycles.

 

210) In a night most people go through about 10 sleep cycles.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: 2

Type: TF

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.5 Describe the pattern of sleep cycles.

 

211) As we age we tend to sleep more, but the quality of that sleep is not as good as it was when we were younger.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: 2

Type: TF

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.5 Describe the pattern of sleep cycles.

 

212) “Larks” are people whose temperature rises quickly after awakening and then stays high until early evening.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.7 Define larks and owls and describe their different sleep patterns.

 

213) People who have stayed awake for long periods of time often experience two- or three-second periods of sleep called microsleeps.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 2

Type: TF

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.8 Describe the function of sleep and how sleep deprivation affects functioning.

 

214) The vivid dreams we remember and talk about are NREM dreams.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: 2

Type: TF

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.8 Describe the function of sleep and how sleep deprivation affects functioning.

 

215) The vivid dreams we remember and talk about are REM dreams.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 2

Type: TF

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.8 Describe the function of sleep and how sleep deprivation affects functioning.

 

216) Researchers have discovered that people with delusional disorders report more bizarre dreams than do those without such disorders.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 2

Type: TF

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Applied

Objective: 4.8 Describe the function of sleep and how sleep deprivation affects functioning.

 

217) Dream memories typically persist for about 30 minutes after a dream has ended.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: 2

Type: TF

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

218) A 2006 Canadian study revealed that 70 percent of the students in their sample were mildly to severely sleep deprived.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 2

Type: TF

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

219) According to the text, sleep terrors experienced by adults are no more harmful or serious than those experienced by children.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: 2

Type: TF

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.11 Define parasomnia.

 

220) Research has suggested that somnambulism and sleep terrors run in families.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.11 Define parasomnia.

 

221) Sleep terrors occur in Stage 4 sleep, while nightmares occur during REM sleep.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 2

Type: TF

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

222) People who suffer from narcolepsy are often lazy and uninterested in work.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

223) In severe cases of sleep apnea, sufferers may partially awaken as many as 800 times a night as they gasp for air.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

224) Recent research has suggested that meditation may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 2

Type: TF

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.14 Define meditation and describe its purpose.

 

225) According to Dr. Herbert Benson, the beneficial effects of meditation can be duplicated with simple relaxation techniques.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.14 Define meditation and describe its purpose.

 

226) Hypnotized subjects are unaware of what is going on around them during hypnosis.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Applied

Objective: 4.15 Define hypnosis and describe its use.

 

227) Subjects under hypnosis will reveal embarrassing secrets.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.15 Define hypnosis and describe its use.

 

228) Hypnosis can be highly effective in pain management.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.15 Define hypnosis and describe its use.

 

229) Psychological drug dependence is marked by the development of drug tolerance.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Conceptual

Objective: 4.17 Describe and contrast drug dependence and drug tolerance.

 

230) Psychological drug dependence is a craving or irresistible urge for a drug’s pleasurable effects, and it is more difficult to combat than physical dependence.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.18 Explain what factors influence the addictive potential of a drug.

 

231) The method of psychoactive drug intake that is most likely to cause addiction is IV injection.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.18 Explain what factors influence the addictive potential of a drug.

 

232) Caffeine is the world’s most widely used stimulant.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

233) Amphetamines slow the reuptake of the neurotransmitter GABA, thus causing the reinforcing effect of GABA to be prolonged.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: 2

Type: TF

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

234) Ecstasy (MDMA) is a cross between a hallucinogen and a narcotic.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: 2

Type: TF

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.20 Identify the most common types of hallucinogens and describe their effects.

 

235) HCT, or hydrotetracannabinol, is the main active ingredient in marijuana.

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 115

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.21 Describe the effects of marijuana.

 

236) Smoking marijuana can interfere with concentration, logical thinking, and the ability to form new memories.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Applied

Objective: 4.21 Describe the effects of marijuana.

 

237) Ecstasy is a designer drug that is a cross between a hallucinogen and an amphetamine.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 115

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.20 Identify the most common types of hallucinogens and describe their effects.

 

238) The most widely used illicit substance in Canada is ecstasy (MDMA).

  1. True

Incorrect: Incorrect

  1. False

Correct: Correct

 

Answer: b

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 115

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.21 Describe the effects of marijuana.

 

239) OxyContin® and Vicodin® are two highly prescribed forms of narcotics that are also highly addictive.

  1. True

Correct: Correct

  1. False

Incorrect: Incorrect

 

Answer: a

Diff: 1

Type: TF

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Factual

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

240) What is the difference between consciousness and an altered state of consciousness? Compare and contrast an example of each.

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES:

Consciousness is the continuous stream of thoughts, feelings, sensations, and perceptions of which we are aware from moment to moment. The student should give an example.

An altered state of consciousness is a mental state other than ordinary waking consciousness, such as sleep, meditation, hypnosis, or a drug-induced state. The student should compare an example of each state.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 98

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

241) How does our circadian rhythm influence us and our sleep?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Circadian rhythm is, within each 24-hour period, the regular fluctuation from high to low points of a bodily function, such as sleep and wakefulness. Sleep is mostly influenced by two factors: alertness and body temperature. The student should explain how these factors influence sleep and wakefulness.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 98

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

242) Define circadian rhythms and provide three examples of the effects of these rhythms on your life as a student.

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: The definition should address how bodily processes show cyclic variations over a 24-hour period. Examples may include such things as the effects of “pulling an all-nighter” studying for this test, having to engage in shift work, jet lag from flying across time zones, and so forth.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 98

Objective: 4.1 Define circadian rhythms and explain how they influence sleep.

 

243) Describe ways to avoid or reduce the effects of jet lag.

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: With regard to prevention, students could mention advancing one’s sleep cycle by an hour a day for several days before travel, or exposure to bright light in the early morning and avoidance of bright light in the evening.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 99

Objective: 4.2 Explain the importance of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

 

244) What are some problems experienced by employees who work rotating shifts?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: When people work at night, they experience a disruption in the rhythms of many bodily functions that are normally synchronized for daytime, which can cause a variety of physical and psychological issues. For example, they may experience more gastrointestinal and cardiovascular problems, or emotional exhaustion and mood problems, and they may use more prescription drugs.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 99-100

Objective: 4.3 Describe the problems associated with shift work.

 

245) You are an executive at an assembly plant considering rotating shifts for its employees. Would you argue for or against this move? If rotating shifts are begun, what is the best way to run the program?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Most students will argue against rotating shifts because the resulting circadian rhythm disruption produces physical problems for the worker and more problems in work productivity and safety.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 100

Objective: 4.3 Describe the problems associated with shift work.

 

246) How does a sleeper react physically during NREM sleep?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: NREM is the sleep in which there is no rapid eye movement. The heart rate and respiration are slow and regular, there is little body movement, and blood pressure and brain activity are at their lowest points of the 24-hour period.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 101

Objective: 4.4 Define and compare NREM and REM sleep.

 

247) What are the physical signs that someone is in REM sleep?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: REM sleep is characterized by rapid eye movement, paralysis of large muscles, fast and irregular heart rate and respiration rate, increased brain wave activity and vivid dreams. You can see the eyes darting around under the eyelids.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 101

Objective: 4.4 Define and compare NREM and REM sleep.

 

248) Explain what occurs in a typical night of sleep in a young adult, including how the body responds during REM and NREM sleep.

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Explanation should include a description of bodily state during NREM (slow respiration and heart rate, low blood pressure) and REM sleep (rapid eye movements, paralysis, erratic breathing and heart rate, elevated blood pressure). Explanation of sleep cycles should cover progression from Stage 1, 2, 3, 4 and REM sleep during the first sleep cycle, Stage 2, 3, 4 and REM sleep in the second cycle, and alternating between Stage 2 and REM sleep for the rest of the sleep cycles. Stage 1 is re-entered only if the person awakens during the night.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 101-102

Objective: 4.4 Define and compare NREM and REM sleep.

 

249) What is the sequence of the stages of sleep that a person passes through during sleep? Briefly summarize each stage.

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: A cycle of sleep lasts about 90 minutes and includes one or more stages of NREM sleep, followed by a period of REM sleep. Stage 1 is a light sleep between sleep and waking. Stage 2 is a deeper sleep and about 50% of a night’s sleep is generally spent in stage 2. Stage 3 is the beginning of slow-wave sleep with more delta waves, and stage 4 is the deepest sleep where people are the hardest to awaken.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 101-102

Objective: 4.5 Describe the pattern of sleep cycles.

 

250) How do sleep patterns change over the lifespan?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Infants and young children have the longest sleep time and highest percentage of REM and deep sleep. Children in middle childhood sleep soundly for 9 hours a night. Between puberty and the end of adolescence, teenagers average about 7.6 hours. As people age, they usually experience a decrease in quality and quantity of sleep. Above the age of 75, people spend more time awake in bed but less time asleep, with the average about 6.5 hours.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 103

Objective: 4.6 Explain how age influences sleep.

 

251) As Amy grows from infancy to old age, how is her sleep pattern likely to change?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: As an infant, she has the longest sleep time and the most REM sleep. In middle childhood, she has the best sleep and the best daytime alertness. As an adolescent, she is often tired during the day, even with enough sleep at night. In old age, she has the shortest total sleep time, many awakenings, and little or no slow-wave sleep.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 103

Objective: 4.6 Explain how age influences sleep.

 

252) What happens when people are deprived of REM sleep? What function does REM sleep appear to serve?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: The student should discuss general reduction in cognitive functioning, especially memory loss, and ability to stay alert. Following REM deprivation, people experience REM rebound, an increase in the percentage of REM sleep, which also involves increased dream intensity and nightmares. The primary function of REM sleep appears to be to facilitate memory consolidation.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 103-104

Objective: 4.8 Describe the function of sleep and how sleep deprivation affects functioning.

 

253) How do REM and NREM dreams differ?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: REM dreams have a story-like quality and are more vivid, visual, emotional, and bizarre than the more thought-like NREM dreams. Of course it should be mentioned that in REM sleep the eyes tend to move more than in NREM. REM sleep seems to be more purposeful, playing a role in memory organization and storage.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 104

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

254) In general, what have researchers found regarding the content of dreams?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Dreams usually reflect the dreamer’s preoccupations in waking life. Dreams tend to have commonplace settings, be more unpleasant than pleasant, and be less emotional and bizarre than people remember them to be.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 104-105

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

255) Develop an outline for a presentation on dreams that you might give to a high school class.

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Some of these points include the difference between NREM dreams, which are thought-like, and REM dreams, which are more vivid and visual, story-like, and more unpleasant than pleasant. Additional points might be related to dream memories, the content of dreams and the interpretation of dreams. The student should mention the research on dreams that suggests their role in organizing and storing memories.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 104-105

Objective: 4.9 Compare REM and NREM dreams.

 

256) What factors influence our sleep needs?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Genetics play a part. People need more sleep when they are depressed, under stress, or experiencing significant life changes such as changing jobs or schools. Increases in mental, physical, or emotional effort also increase our need for sleep.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 107

Objective: 4.10 Describe the factors that influence how much sleep we need.

 

257) Compare and contrast short with long sleepers.

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Short sleepers are the 20 percent of the population who require fewer than 6 hours; long sleepers are the 10 percent who require more than 9. The minimum for most people is 6.5. In one study no participant could get below 4.5 hours.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 107

Objective: 4.10 Describe the factors that influence how much sleep we need.

 

258) How does occupation affect the amount of sleep a person needs? What other factors affect the need for sleep?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Contrary to popular opinion, the amount of activity required in an occupation does not affect the amount of sleep a person needs. People need more sleep when they are depressed, under stress, or experiencing significant life changes such as changing jobs or schools. Increases in mental, physical, or emotional effort also increase our need for sleep.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 107

Objective: 4.10 Describe the factors that influence how much sleep we need.

 

259) What are parasomnias?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Parasomnias are sleep disturbances in which behaviours and physiological states that normally occur only in the waking state take place during sleep or the transition from sleep to wakefulness.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 107

Skill: 4.11 Define parasomnia.

 

260) How are sleepwalking and sleep terrors similar, and how are they different?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Sleepwalking and sleep terrors both tend to occur during a partial arousal from slow wave sleep, and the person does not come to full consciousness. Episodes are rarely recalled. These disorders are typically found in children and are outgrown by adolescence, and they tend to run in families. The student should also describe the differences in symptoms andfocus mainly on the level of anxiety that is more closely connected with sleep terrors.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 108

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

261) What is a sleep terror?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: A sleep terror is a parasomnia in which the sleeper awakens from Stage 4 sleep with a scream, in a dazed, groggy and panicky state, and with a racing heart. They usually last 5 to 15 minutes, occur mostly in children, and are generally not remembered unless the child awakes during the event.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 108

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

262) How do nightmares differ from sleep terrors?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Nightmares are frightening dreams occurring during REM sleep and remembered in vivid detail. Sleep terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, are rarely remembered, and often involve a single, frightening dream image.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 108

Objective: 4.12 Describe and compare the different types of parasomnia.

 

263) What are the major symptoms of narcolepsy, and what events can trigger it?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: The symptoms of narcolepsy include excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of REM sleep. Anything that causes an ordinary person to be tired can trigger a sleep attack in a narcoleptic—a heavy meal, sunbathing at the beach, or a boring lecture. A sleep attack can also be brought on by any situation that is exciting (narcoleptic attacks often occur during lovemaking) or that causes a strong emotion, such as anger or laughter. Narcolepsy is a physiological disorder caused by an abnormality in the part of the brain that regulates sleep, and it appears to have a strong genetic component.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 108

Skill: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

264) What is sleep apnea?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder in which breathing stops during sleep and the person must awaken briefly to breathe. Its major symptoms are excessive daytime sleepiness and loud snoring.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 109

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

265) Describe insomnia?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Insomnia is a sleep disorder that involves difficulty falling or staying asleep, or falling into a sleep that is light, restless, or of poor quality. It can be transient or chronic, and it affects from 10 to 15 percent of the adult population.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 109

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

266) Explain the characteristics of the major sleep disorders and sleep disturbances.

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Answer should include brief discussion of narcolepsy, sleep apnea, insomnia, sleepwalking, night terrors, and anxiety nightmares. Excellent answers could include causes and treatments for the disorders.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 108-109

Objective: 4.13 Describe and compare the different types of major sleep disorder.

 

267) What are some of the benefits of meditation?

 

Answer:

Recent research has shown that meditation may have a range of positive health effects, including reducing stress and lowering blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and other measures of cardiovascular risk. There is also evidence that it can help control anxiety and depression.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 110

Objective: 4.14 Define meditation and describe its purpose.

 

268) Describe a typical meditation technique and list at least three possible effects of practicing meditation.

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Most students will choose the meditation technique described in detail in the book, but be open to other options (e.g., focusing on breathing, focusing on an object, using a mantra). Possible effects include physiological changes such as slower breathing and heart rate, more alpha brain waves, and general relaxation.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 110

Objective: 4.14 Define meditation and describe its purpose.

 

269) For what conditions has hypnosis been shown to be useful?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Hypnosis is most successful for pain. It is now recognized as a viable technique to be used in medicine, dentistry, and psychotherapy. Hypnosis is accepted by the American Medical Association, the American Psychological Association, and the American Psychiatric Association. Hypnosis has been particularly helpful in the management of pain and other side effects associated with cancer care.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 110

Objective: 14.15 Define hypnosis and describe its use.

 

270) What are the common myths about hypnosis? For what purposes might hypnosis be used?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: The common myths are those associated with stage hypnotists, the loss of control, superhuman strength, age-regression, etc. Medical uses of hypnosis include treatment of pain, high blood pressure, etc.

– Hypnotized subjects are aware of what is going on during hypnosis.

– Individuals will not violate their moral values under hypnosis.

– Individuals cannot demonstrate superhuman strength or perform amazing feats because they are hypnotized.

– Memory is not more accurate under hypnosis.

– Hypnotized individuals will not reveal embarrassing secrets.

– Hypnotized individuals will not relive events as they believe they should have occurred (i.e., rather than as they actually took place in childhood).

– Hypnotized individuals are not under the complete control of the hypnotist.

– The hypnotized person’s responses are often automatic and involuntary.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 110-111

Objective: 4.15 Define hypnosis and describe its use.

 

271) What is the difference between physical and psychological drug dependence?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: With physical drug dependence, the user develops a drug tolerance so that larger and larger doses are needed to get the same effect. Tolerance grows because the brain adapts to the presence of the drug by responding less intensely to it. The various bodily processes adjust in order to continue to function with the drug in the system. Withdrawal symptoms appear when the drug is discontinued and disappear when the drug is taken again. Withdrawal symptoms are the opposite of the symptoms of tolerance. Psychological drug dependence involves an intense craving for the drug.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 113

Objective: 4.17 Describe and contrast drug dependence and drug tolerance.

 

272) What factors are most significant in making a drug addictive or not?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: The overall issue is the extent to which the drug is experienced as pleasurable, for how long, and with what speed it has its effect.

Four factors influence the addictive potential of a drug:

(1) how quickly the effects of the drug are felt;

(2) how pleasurable the drug’s effects are;

(3) how long the pleasurable effects last; and

(4) how much discomfort is experienced when the drug is discontinued.

With the most addictive drugs, the pleasurable effects are felt almost immediately but are short-lived. For example, the intensely pleasurable effects of crack cocaine are felt in seven seconds but last only about five minutes. Because the discomfort is intense after the pleasurable effects wear off, the user is highly motivated to continue taking the drug. With any drug, the abuse potential is higher if the drug is injected rather than taken orally, and higher still if it is smoked rather than injected.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 113

Objective: 4.18 Explain what factors influence the addictive potential of a drug.

 

273) How do stimulants affect the user? Go into detail with regard to the effects of one stimulant.

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Stimulants speed up activity in the central nervous system, suppress appetite, and make a person feel more awake, alert, and energetic. The student can chose which stimulant to provide more detail on. If they choose nicotine, for example, they might emphasize the concomitant death rate. If they chose cocaine, they might emphasize the effect of dopamine, addiction, and the difficulty in experiencing pleasure without the drug after a period of use.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 113

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

274) What effects do amphetamines have on the user, short-term and long-term?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Amphetamines increase arousal, relieve fatigue, and suppress the appetite. In moderate doses they can improve memory and attention. Higher doses, even in the short run, can produce confusion and even delusions. With continued use, they result in exhaustion, depression, and agitation. They are highly addictive, and can be fatal, especially in cases of heart disease.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 114

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

275) How does cocaine affect the user?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Cocaine is a stimulant that causes a feeling of euphoria and is highly addictive. Heavy use can cause seizures, heart palpitations, and heart attacks. Cocaine can replace the neurotransmitter dopamine, producing long-term tolerance and addiction. Cocaine constricts the blood vessels, raises blood pressure, speeds up the heart, quickens respiration, and can even cause epileptic seizures in people who have no history of epilepsy.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 114

Objective: 4.19 Identify the most common types of stimulants and describe their effects.

 

276) What are the main effects of hallucinogens, and what are two psychoactive drugs classified as hallucinogens?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: LSD, ecstasy, and marijuana are hallucinogens. They can alter perception of time and space, alter moods, and cause hallucinations. Rather than produce a predictable effect on mood, they amplify the mood of the individual at the time. They have been used by many cultures over thousands of years as a means to encourage the individual to see the world from a different perspective.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 114-115

Objective: 4.20 Identify the most common types of hallucinogens and describe their effects.

 

277) What are some harmful effects associated with heavy marijuana use?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: There is some evidence that heavy marijuana use can cause memory problems, respiratory damage, loss of motivation, impotence, lowered testosterone levels and sperm count, and irregular menstrual cycles.

 

Diff: 1

Type: ES

Page Reference: 116

Objective: 4.21 Describe the effects of marijuana.

 

278) What are some of the known dangers and benefits of marijuana?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Dangers include loss of motivation; impotence; lowered testosterone level and sperm count; and irregular menstrual cycles. The benefits include the relief of side effects from certain medicines.

It is currently prescribed for the treatment of the eye disease glaucoma and to control nausea and stimulate appetite in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer or AIDS.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 116

Objective: 4.21 Describe the effects of marijuana.

 

279) What are some of the effects of depressants, and what drugs comprise this category?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Depressants decrease activity in the central nervous system, slow down body functions, and reduce sensitivity to outside stimulation. Depressants include sedative hypnotics such as alcohol, barbiturates and minor tranquilizers, and narcotics such as opiates.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 116-117

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.

 

280) What are the general effects of narcotics, and what are several drugs in this category?

 

Answer:

GUIDELINES: Narcotics include opium, codeine, morphine, and heroin. Narcotics have both pain-relieving and calming effects. Because they facilitate the firing of the brain’s pleasure centre they are all potentially addictive. Opiates such as morphine and heroin mimic the effects of the brain’s own endorphins, which make us feel good, and have analgesic, or pain-relieving, properties. Opium affects mainly the brain and the bowel. It paralyzes the intestinal muscles, which is why it is used medically to treat diarrhea. Because opium suppresses the cough centre, it is used in some cough medicines.

 

Diff: 2

Type: ES

Page Reference: 117

Objective: 4.22 Identify the three most common types of depressants and describe their effects.