Work Industry and Canadian Society 7th Edition Test Bank
Work Industry and Canadian Society 7th Edition Test Bank
Chapter 1: Historical Perspectives on Work (1700-1950s)Chapter 1: Historical Perspectives on Work (1700-1950s)Multiple-Choice QuestionsIdentify the choice that best answers the question.
1. Which of the following are demonstrated by historical studies?
a. Industrial capitalism had given way to mercantile capitalism by the mid-1800s. b. Industrialization took place in Canada later than in Europe and the United States.c. Mercantile capitalism began in Asia, while industrial capitalism began in Europe. d. North American workers did not experience poverty and exploitation during early industrialization similar to what was experienced by the English working class.
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: pp. 4-5, 7-8 BLM: Higher Order
2. Compared to the era of industrial capitalism in western Europe, which of the following characterized feudal society?
a. More rapid social change.b. Less emphasis on religion. c. Less wage labour. d. Larger communities.
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 4 BLM: Remember
3. During the first half of the 1800s, Russia’s economy was dominated by agriculture, with powerful landowners profiting from the work done by landless peasants. During the second half of the 1800s, many large factories and railway systems were built by rich individuals and families and large companies. In 1917, the Russian Revolution led to the state (government) taking over ownership of farms, factories, railways, and the rest of the economy. This system stayed in place until 1989. Which of the following best describes Russia in the early 1800s?
a. Mercantile capitalism.b. Feudalism. c. Industrial capitalism. d. Socialism.
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 4 BLM: Remember
4. Based on Q. 5 (above), which of the following best describes Russia in the late 1800s?
a. Post-feudalism. b. Mercantile capitalism.c. Industrial capitalism. d. Diversified capitalism.
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: pp. 4-5 BLM: Remember
5. Which of the following best describes the “putting out” system that existed during early industrialization in Europe?
a. Women were extensively involved in production. b. Large investments in manufacturing technology were required.c. It was more efficient than factory-based production.d. It dramatically increased the level of agricultural production.
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 5 BLM: Higher Order
6. Which of the following was not part of “the great transformation” described by Karl Polanyi?
a. The emergence of socialist forms of government.b. Growing urbanization.c. A shift to new technologies and inanimate energy sources.d. The emergence of widespread wage labour.
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Remember
7. Which of the following occurred in pre-industrial Canada in the early 1800s?
a. Many people who had immigrated to the United States were moving to Canada because they could not get jobs in the United States. b. Immigrants employed in canal-building were very poorly paid.c. Many factories were being built.d. Agriculture was becoming the dominant industry in western Canada.
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 7 BLM: Remember
8. During the early 1900s in Canada, which of the following were occurring?
a. Skilled craftworkers in Ontario were eager to begin working in large factories.b. Employers did not want to hire immigrants from Europe and China for jobs in mining and railway-building because they thought they would join unions. c. Dangerous working conditions in mining in western Canada led to several socialists being elected as provincial politicians. d. Laws were being passed so that women were paid the same as men for similar work.
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: pp. 9-10 BLM: Remember
9. The economy in the African country of Hypothetica is primarily agricultural. Most of the farms are owned by companies in western Europe or the United States. Local residents are hired on a monthly basis to work on the farms, using high-tech farm machinery. Which of the following concepts that Karl Marx introduced would be best for describing this economic system?
a. Mode of production.b. Means of production. c. Social relations of production.d. Industrial agrarian production.
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 10 BLM: Higher Order
10. According to Karl Marx, which of the following would eventually be the root cause of the end of capitalism and the emergence of socialism?
a. Laws prohibiting trade unions.b. Increasing division of labour. c. Alienating effects of bureaucracy.d. Growing conflict between the working class and capitalists.
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 11 BLM: Higher Order
11. Which of the following social theorists best predicted what happened in Russia in 1917?
a. Adam Smith. b. mile Durkheim.c. Max Weber. d. Karl Marx.
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 11 BLM: Remember
12. Which of the following best describes Russia throughout most of the 1900s?a. State capitalism. b. Mercantile capitalism.c. Industrial capitalism. d. State socialism.
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 11-12 BLM: Remember
13. In what way did Adam Smith and Karl Marx have similar views about work relationships in industrial societies, even though their reasons were different?
a. Both were opposed to the division of labour.b. Both were opposed to excessive bureaucracy. c. Both felt that unions did not really provide benefits to workers.d. Both felt that the exploitation of workers was wrong.
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 12 BLM: Higher Order
14. Which of the following is most correct with respect to social theories about the division of labour?a. Adam Smith believed that it led to widespread alienation among workers.b. mile Durkheim argued that it was both economically useful and morally good.?c. Karl Marx believed it increased both profits for owners and the happiness of workers. d. Max Weber stated that it no longer existed in large bureaucracies.
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: pp. 12-15 BLM: Higher Order
15. Adam Smith’s view of modern economies is described best by which of the following?
a. He argued that competition led to the creation of wealth. b. He condoned the exploitation of workers because low wages increase productivity. c. He believed the division of labour had no impact on productivity. d. He felt that the key to understanding the economy was studying bureaucracy.
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: pp. 12-13 BLM: Remember
16. Adam Smith argued that an extensive division of labour could lead to immense increases in productivity in a factory setting. What did Charles Babbage propose to further increase profits for factory owners?
a. Increasing the length of the working day.b. Paying workers less, since they would require fewer skills.c. Outlawing trade unions.d. Making workers pay for their own tools.
ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 14 BLM: Remember
17. Which of the following assumptions is most central to mile Durkheim’s assessment of the positive social outcomes of the division of labour?
a. Workers doing very different jobs must recognize that they depend on others with different responsibilities. b. An extensive division of labour is typically most profitable. c. While workers are doing very different jobs, they all should be paid about the same. d. People with more skills must be paid the most.
ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 15 BLM: Higher Order
18. Health Central is a large hospital where most doctors earn over $200,000 annually, most nurses earn about $65,000 annually, and the cleaning staff are paid the minimum wage. Because they feel they are underpaid, the cleaning staff don’t like helping the nurses. For the same reason, the nurses don’t like helping out the doctors. A consultant hired to deal with the problem recommends a series of workshops where members of all three groups will meet to learn more about what others do in their jobs. Which of the following social theorists would likely applaud this suggestion? a. Adam Smith. b. Karl Marx. c. mile Durkheim.d. Max Weber.
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 15 BLM: Higher Order
19. The approach recommended by the consultant hired by Health Central (see Q. 18) would best be described as reflecting which of the following perspectives on the sociology of work?a. The great transformation perspective. b. The post-bureaucratic perspective.c. The conflict perspective.d. The consensus approach.
ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 15 BLM: Higher Order
20. Organization X has the following characteristics. According to Max Weber, which one would not be present in an “ideal type” bureaucracy?
a. Each job has its own clearly defined responsibilities. b. A clear chain of command links all positions from the bottom to the top of the organizational hierarchy. c. Managers require workers to volunteer in the community, but do not allow them to get involved in politics. d. Carefully written records are kept of all decisions made and transactions completed.
ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 16 BLM: Higher Order
Short Answer Questions
21. Define and briefly discuss, with examples, the concepts of “industrial society” and “capitalist system of production.”
REF: p. 3
22. Briefly discuss what Karl Polanyi meant by “the great transformation.”
REF: p. 6
23. In one or two sentences for each, describe one of the main contributions to the sociology of work made by Adam Smith, Karl Marx, mile Durkheim, and Max Weber.
REF: pp. 10-16
24. Briefly compare the “consensus” and “conflict” perspectives in the sociology of work.
REF: pp. 11-12, 15
25. Imagine that Karl Marx and mile Durkheim were invited to debate what they saw to be the key social aspects of the Industrial Revolution and its most important outcomes. In your essay, outline the arguments and rebuttals that each might make.
Suggested student response: Students will need to outline the basic social/economic theories of both Marx and Durkheim. The “conflict” and “consensus” perspectives on the sociology of work would be a useful framework. More motivated students might consult additional scholarly sources that critique either Marx or Durkheim or both.
26. Canada developed into an industrial capitalist society following a somewhat different path than Britain. Discuss these differences. How has the contemporary Canadian economy and society been shaped by its unique industrialization trajectory?
Suggested student response: Students should discuss feudalism, mercantile capitalism, and industrial capitalism in Britain. Reference to “the great transformation” (Polanyi) would be useful. They should recognize that the process started later in Canada, did not really involve feudalism, was influenced by what was occurring in the United States, and had strong regional components. Both the influence of the United States and the regional nature of Canadian industrialization are reflected in Canadian society today. Some students might move beyond the economic to discuss impacts on contemporary Canadian culture, on First Nations, or other themes.
27. George Santayana once wrote that “[t]hose who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” Other contemporary social commentators suggest there is little to learn from the history of industrial capitalism, since new technologies have so dramatically changed the world of work. What is your opinion on this debate?
Suggested student response: Students could go in almost any direction with this essay question, but they should present a reasonably extensive and accurate description of the history of industrial capitalism in Canada and/or Britain to argue that history is either relevant or not. An answer taking the position that history is relevant is likely to be more convincing. With respect to this position, continued regional differences in employment opportunities in Canada would be worth noting.
28. See Discussion Questions at the end of Chapter 1 for additional ideas for examination essay questions.